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File:Geographic locations of the Free Economic Zones.png

Geographic locations of the Free Economic Zones as of 2012.

Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone (SEZ) designated by the trade and commerce administrations of various countries. The term is used to designate areas in which companies are taxed very lightly or not at all to encourage economic activity. The taxation rules are determined by each country. The World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (SCM) has content on the conditions and benefits of free zones.

Some special economic zones are called free ports. Sometimes they have historically been endowed with favorable customs regulations such as the free port of Trieste. In recent years the free port system has been accused of facilitating international art crime, allowing stolen artworks to remain undetected in storage for decades.[1]

Definition[]

According to the 1999 Revised Kyoto Convention, a "'free zone' means a part of the territory of a contracting party where any goods introduced are generally regarded, insofar as import duties and taxes are concerned, as being outside the customs territory."Template:Sfn

History[]

An early type of special economic zone was free ports, these historically were endowed with favorable customs regulations. In modern times free port has come to mean a specific type of special economic zone, for example LADOL. All "free ports" in the world are permitted by the respective States, save the Free Port of Trieste that with the signing of the 16th Resolution of the Security Council of the United Nations [2] (10 January 1947) and the signing of the Treaty of Peace with Italy (10 February 1947, ratified 15 September 1947) were put territorially under the sovereignty of the United Nations itself. As cited on Annex VIII, Article 3 paragraph 2 : "The establishment of special zones in the Free Port under the exclusive jurisdiction of any State is incompatible with the status of the Free Territory and of the Free Port". For example, it is not possible to apply the "Italian Law on Ports" in the extraterritorial free zones of the UN Free Port of Trieste with the effect that all actual territorial concessions are null and void.

List of free economic zones by country[]

Main article: List of free economic zones

Albania[]

Argentina[]

  • General Pico Free Zone[5]
  • Provincia de Tierra del Fuego, Antártida e Islas del Atlántico Sur

Armenia[]

  • Gyumri

Bangladesh[]

Bangladesh Export Processing Zone Authority

Belarus[]

  • Brest FEZ
  • FEZ Mogilev
  • FEZ Vitebsk

Bolivia[]

  • Cobija Free Economic Zone (Zona Franca de Cobija, in Spanish)[6]

Brazil[]

  • Free Economic Zone of Manaus, in Manaus

Bulgaria[]

  • Burgas
  • Rousse
  • Plovdiv
  • Dragoman,_Bulgaria
  • Vidin
  • Svilengrad

Chile[]

  • Iquique
  • Punta Arenas

China[]

Egypt[]

  • Port Said Public Free Zone
  • Alexandria Public Free Zone
  • Nasr City Public Free Zone
  • Suez Public Free Zone
  • Ismailia Public Free Zone
  • Damietta Public Free Zone
  • Media Public Free Zone
  • Shebin El- Kom Public Free Zone
  • Qeft Public Free Zone
  • Port Said East Port Public Free Zone

Georgia[]

  • Poti, Samegrelo region

Germany[]

  • Speicherstadt, Hamburg.

Ghana[]

  • Tema, Free Zone Enclave

India[]

  • Sricity Multi Product SEZ, Andhra Pradesh[7]
  • SEEPZ, India
  • MARG Swarnabhoomi SEZs for Engineering and Multi Services, Tamil Nadu[8]
  • Inspira Pharma & Renewable Energy Park, Aurangabad, Maharashtra[9]

Iran[]

  • Kish
  • Aras Free Zone
  • Anzali Free Zone
  • Arvand Free Zone
  • Chabahar Free Zone
  • Gheshm Free Zone
  • Maku Free Zone
  • Imam Khomeini Airport City Free Zone

Iraq[]

  • Sulaymaniyah Free Zone

Ireland[]

  • Shannon Free Zone[10]

Italy[]

  • Erice
  • Gela
  • Crotone
  • Rossano
  • Lamezia Terme
  • Matera
  • Taranto
  • Lecce
  • Andria
  • Naples
  • Torre Annunziata
  • Mondragone
  • Campobasso
  • Velletri
  • Sora
  • Pescara
  • Massa Carrara
  • Ventimiglia

South Korea[]

  • Korean Free Economic Zones[11]
  • Busan-Jinhae Free Economic Zone[12]
  • Daegu-Gyeongbuk Free Economic Zone[13]
  • Gwangyang Bay Area Free Economic Zone[14]
  • Incheon Free Economic Zone[15]
  • Yellow Sea Free Economic Zone[16]
  • Saemanguem-Gunsan Free Economic Zone[17]
  • East Coast Free Economic Zone[18]
  • Chungbuk Free Economic Zone[19]

Latvia[]

  • Liepāja Special Economic Zone[20]
  • Rēzekne Special Economic Zone[21]
  • Rīga Freeport Economic Zone[22]
  • Ventspils High Technology Park[23]

Lithuania[]

  • Marijampolė Free Economic Zone[24]
  • Kaunas Free Economic Zone
  • Klaipėda Free Economic Zone[25]
  • Panevėžys Free Economic Zone[26]
  • Akmenė Free Economic Zone
  • Šiauliai Free Economic Zone
  • Kėdainiai Free Economic Zone

Nigeria[]

  • Centenary Economic City
  • LADOL Free Zone[27]
  • Nigeria International Commerce city

Macedonia[]

  • Free Economic Zone Skopje 1[28]
  • Free Economic Zone Skopje 2[28]
  • Free Economic Zone Stip[28]
  • Free Economic Zone Tetovo[28]

Malaysia[]

  • Port Klang Free Zone

Moldova[]

  • Entrepreneurship Free Zone Expo-Business-Chişinău
  • Entrepreneurship Free Zone "Tvardiţa"
  • Entrepreneurship Free Zone "Taraclia"
  • Entrepreneurship Free Zone "Valkaneş"
  • Entrepreneurship Free Zone "Otaci-Business"
  • FEZ "Bălți"
  • FEZ "Ungheni-Business"
  • FEZ Aeroportul Liber Internaţional Mărculeşti
  • FEZ International Free Port Giurgiulești

Mongolia[]

  • Tsagaan Nuur Free Economic Zone[29]
  • Altanbulag Free Trade Zone[30]
  • Zamyn-Uud Free Economic Zone[30]

Morocco[]

Export Processing Zone of Tangier[31]

Free Zones at Tanger Med Ksar el Majaz Mellousa 1 and 2

Free Zone in Dakhla and Laayoune

Free Storage Zone of hydrocarbons: Kebdana and Nador

Export Processing Zone in Kenitra

Norway[]

  • Svalbard

Oman[]

Pakistan[]

  • Gwadar Port Gwadar Port free Zone, part of CPEC Project[32][33]

Peru[]

  • Tacna Free Economic Zone (Zona Franca de Tacna, in Spanish)[34]

Philippines[]

  • Subic Bay Freeport Zone - first Freeport in the Philippines
  • Clark Freeport Zone

Qatar[]

Qatar has free zones and Special Economic Zones with differing laws on taxation and corporate ownership

  • Qatar Science & Technology Park
  • Qatar Financial Centre
  • Manateq Special Economic Zones[35]
    • Ras Bufontas
    • Um Alhoul
    • Al Karaana

Russia[]

In Russia there are only Special Economic Zones

Technical/Innovational Zones

  • Dubna
  • Zelenograd (Moscow)
  • Saint Petersburg
  • Tomsk
  • Innopolis

Industrial/developmental Zones

  • Alabuga Special Economic Zone
  • Lipetsk

Tourist Zones

  • Krasnodar Krai
  • Stavropol Krai
  • Kaliningrad Oblast (Yantar, Kaliningrad Special Economic Zone)
  • Altai Krai
  • Altai Republic
  • Irkutsk Oblast
  • Buryatia
  • Vladivostok

Serbia[]

  • Free Zone Pirot Slobodna zona Pirot[36]

Spain[]

  • Barcelona Free Port
  • Port of Vigo

Somaliland[]

  • Berbera Free Zone DP World BFZ[37]

Tajikistan[]

  • Sughd Free Economic Zone
  • Panj Free Economic Zone
  • Dangara Free Economic Zone
  • Ishkoshim Free Economic Zone

Free Territory of Trieste[]

Free Port of Trieste [3]

Turkey[]

  • See List of free zones of Turkey

Turkmenistan[]

  • Mary-Baýramaly
  • Okarem-Hazar
  • Turkmenabat-Seidi
  • Bakharden-Serdar
  • Ashgabat-Annau
  • Ashgabat-Bezmein
  • Serakhs
  • Guneshli
  • Ashgabat International Airport
  • Dashoguz Airport[38]

Ukraine[]

  • Autonomous Republic of Crimea
  • Quarantine Pier of Odessa trade sea port, January 1, 2000, for 25 years
  • Ukraine and EU Free Trade Agreement[39]

United Arab Emirates[]

  • Ajman Free Zone
  • Dubai Academic City
  • Dubai Airport Free Zone
  • Dubai Internet City
  • Dubai Media City
  • Dubai Multi Commodities Centre
  • Dubai Knowledge Village
  • Dubai Healthcare City
  • Dubai International Financial Center
  • Dubai Science Park
  • Dubai Outsource Zone
  • Dubai Silicon Oasis
  • Dubai Studio City
  • International Media and Production Zone
  • Jebel Ali Free Zone[40]
  • SAIF ZONE Sharjah
  • twofour54 Abu Dhabi
  • Fujairah Free Zone
  • Fujairah Creative City
  • Ras Al Khaimah Free Trade Zone
  • Masdar City Free Zone Abu Dhabi

United Kingdom[]

  • London Docklands
  • Bristol Suburbs

United States[]

  • Foreign-trade zones of the United States

Vietnam[]

  • Dung Quất
  • Chu Lai
  • Nghi Sơn
  • Vân Đồn[41]
  • Vân Phong[41]
  • Phú Quốc[41]

Yemen[]

See also[]

  • Bonded logistics park - another type of SEZ
  • Free trade zone - another type of SEZ
  • Four Asian Tigers

References[]

  1. "Experts identify top six scandals amid boom in art crime" The Art Newspaper, 1 July 2015 [1]
  2. Template:Cite web
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. Template:Cite web
  5. Template:Cite web
  6. http://zofracobija.gob.bo/
  7. Template:Cite web
  8. Template:Cite web
  9. Template:Cite web
  10. Template:Cite web
  11. Template:Cite web
  12. Template:Cite web
  13. http://www.dgfez.go.kr Template:Webarchive
  14. Template:Cite web
  15. http://www.ifez.go.kr
  16. Template:Cite web
  17. http://sgfez.go.kr/
  18. Template:Cite web
  19. Template:Cite web
  20. Template:Cite web
  21. Template:Cite web
  22. Template:Cite web
  23. Template:Cite web
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. Template:Cite web
  26. Template:Cite web
  27. Template:Cite web
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 Template:Cite web
  29. http://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/project-document/66546/36027-07-reg-tacr.pdf
  30. 30.0 30.1 Template:Cite web
  31. Template:Cite web
  32. Template:Cite web
  33. Template:Cite web
  34. Template:Cite web
  35. Template:Cite web
  36. Template:Cite web
  37. Template:Cite web
  38. Rafis Abazov, Historical Dictionary Of Turkmenistan, p. 62, Template:ISBN
  39. Template:Cite news
  40. Template:Cite web
  41. 41.0 41.1 41.2 Template:Cite web
  42. Template:Cite web

Bibliography[]

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External links[]

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