The people of Hainan (Chinese: 海南人), known as Hainanese and Hainan people, usually refers to people who originate from Hainan, the southernmost and smallest Chinese province. The term "Hainanese" was frequently used by Hainanese-speaking Han (Template:Zh), who are the majority in the island, to identify themselves overseas. Nevertheless, other natives of the island such as Hlai (Template:Zh), Yao (Template:Zh "Miao people") and Utsuls also use the term.
Most Hainanese Han people were originally fisherfolk from the Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces who later settled in the island of Hainan, while the Li natives came to the island earlier and were descendants of the Yue tribe, from the mainland. The ancestors of the Min Hainanese-speaking people came from Fujian, and the ancestors of the Danzhou-speaking people came from Guangdong.
Similarly to Fujian and Guangdong provinces, Hainan has been the source for much migration. Towards the turn of the 20th century, many Hainanese migrated to various Southeast Asian nations, where they worked as cooks, restaurateurs, coffee shop owners, clothesmakers, sailors and hoteliers. Chan Sing, one of the "villain" movie stars that dotted the Hong Kong movie industry was of Hainanese ancestry, as was the bartender who invented the world-famous Singapore Sling at the renowned Singapore Raffles Hotel, Mr. Ngiam Tong Boon. In Thailand, singer Nichkhun of 2PM, media mogul Sondhi Limthongkul, the politically influential Sarasin family, as well as two of the wealthiest business families, the Chirathivats and the Yoovidhyas, all trace their ancestries to Hainan.
In Hainan, the local Han Chinese speak Hainanese, a Southern Min language also known as Qiongwen, as their native tongue. The dialect of Wenchang is considered to be the prestige dialect. With Hainan's proximity to Guangdong and Guangxi, some locals can also understand Cantonese. Standard Chinese (based on Mandarin) is also the lingua franca in the island province as in the rest of China.
- Main article: Hainan cuisine
The Hainanese are known for their signature dishes such as the Hainanese chicken rice, Wenchang chicken, Hainanese pork chop, Hainanese mutton soup, Hainanese salted fish soup and beef noodle soup.
Notably, in Singapore, these signature dishes are served at the various eateries located along Purvis Street, within the Hainanese enclave; accordingly, Purvis Street is often referred to as "Singapore's Hainan Street".Template:Citation needed Hainanese chicken rice is a recognised dish throughout Southeast Asia due to the Hainanese diaspora in these areas who famed it. It is often labelled as Singapore's national dish.
Hainanese Opera (Qiong Opera) is a passion for many Hainanese, particularly for the older generation. Enriched with local flavours, Hainanese Opera is part and parcel of Hainanese culture.
- Han Chinese
- Hoklo people & Teochew people
- Thai Chinese
- Chinese Singaporean
- Malaysian Chinese
- Indonesian Chinese
- Li people
- Yangpu Ancient Salt Field