The Singapore LGBT encyclopaedia Wiki

Template:Pp-semi-indef Template:Pp-move-indef Template:EngvarB Template:Use dmy dates

Indonesia (Template:IPAc-en Template:Respell or Template:IPAc-en Template:Respell; Indonesian: Template:IPA-id), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Template:Lang-id Template:IPA-id), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia. An archipelago comprising thousands of islands,[8] Indonesia has an estimated population of over 255 million people and is the world's fourth-most-populous country and the most-populous Muslim-majority country.

Indonesia's republican form of government includes an elected legislature and president. Indonesia has 34 provinces, of which five have Special Administrative status. The nation's capital city is Jakarta. The country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and the Indian territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Indonesia is a founding member of ASEAN and a member of the G-20 major economies. The Indonesian economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 8th largest by GDP at PPP.

The Indonesian archipelago has been an important trade region since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and then later Majapahit traded with China and India. Local rulers gradually absorbed foreign cultural, religious and political models from the early centuries CE, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Indonesian history has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources. Muslim traders brought the now-dominant Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Following three and a half centuries of Dutch colonialism, at times interrupted by Portuguese, French and British rule, Indonesia secured its independence after World War II. Indonesia's history has since been turbulent, with challenges posed by natural disasters, mass slaughter, corruption, separatism, a democratisation process, and periods of rapid economic change.

Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups. The largest – and politically dominant – ethnic group are the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a majority Muslim population, and a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Diversity" literally, "many, yet one"), articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support the world's second highest level of biodiversity. The country has abundant natural resources, yet poverty remains widespread.[9][10]


Template:Further The name Indonesia derives from the Greek words Indós and nèsos, meaning "Indian island".[11] The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia.[12] In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians — and, his preference, Malayunesians — for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago".[13] In the same publication, a student of Earl's, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago.[14][15] However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. Instead, they used the terms Malay Archipelago (Maleische Archipel); the Netherlands East Indies (Nederlandsch Oost Indië), popularly Indië; the East (de Oost); and Insulinde.[16]

After 1900, the name Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, and Indonesian nationalist groups adopted it for political expression.[16] Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894. The first Indonesian scholar to use the name was Suwardi Suryaningrat (Ki Hajar Dewantara), when he established a press bureau in the Netherlands with the name Indonesisch Pers-bureau in 1913.[12]


Main article: History of Indonesia
File:Borobudur ship.JPG

A Borobudur ship carved on Borobudur, c. 800 CE. Indonesian outrigger boats may have made trade voyages to the east coast of Africa as early as the 1st century CE.[17]

Pre-historical era[]

Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, popularly known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and as recently as 35,000 years ago.[18][19][20] Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45,000 years ago.[21] In 2011 evidence was uncovered in neighbouring East Timor showing that 42,000 years ago these early settlers were catching and consuming large numbers of big deep sea fish such as tuna,[22] and that they had the technology needed to make ocean crossings to reach Australia and other islands.

Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to South East Asia from Taiwan. They arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE, and as they spread through the archipelago, pushed the indigenous Melanesian peoples to the far eastern regions.[23] Ideal agricultural conditions, and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE,[24] allowed villages, towns, and small kingdoms to flourish by the 1st century CE. Indonesia's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and China, which were established several centuries BCE.[25] Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history.[26][27]

Hinduism and Buddhism kingdoms era[]

File:Myristica fragrans - Köhler–s Medizinal-Pflanzen-097.jpg

The nutmeg plant is native to Indonesia's Banda Islands. Once one of the world's most valuable commodities, it drew the first European colonial powers to Indonesia.

Hinduism and Mahayana Buddhism arrived in Indonesia in the 4th and 5th century, as trade with India intensified under the southern Indian Pallava dynasty.[28] This is evidenced in the Kutai, Tarumanagara, and Kantoli kingdoms of the period. From the 7th century, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.[29][30] Between the 8th and 10th centuries, the agricultural Buddhist Sailendra and Hindu Mataram dynasties thrived and declined in inland Java, leaving grand religious monuments such as Sailendra's Borobudur and Mataram's Prambanan. The Hindu Majapahit kingdom was founded in eastern Java in the late 13th century, and under Gajah Mada, its influence stretched over much of Indonesia.[31]

Islamic era and European colonization[]

Although Muslim traders first travelled through Southeast Asia early in the Islamic era, the earliest evidence of Islamised populations in Indonesia dates to the 13th century in northern Sumatra.[32] Other Indonesian areas gradually adopted Islam, and it was the dominant religion in Java and Sumatra by the end of the 16th century. For the most part, Islam overlaid and mixed with existing cultural and religious influences, which shaped the predominant form of Islam in Indonesia, particularly in Java.[33] The first regular contact between Europeans and the peoples of Indonesia began in 1512, when Portuguese traders, led by Francisco Serrão, sought to monopolise the sources of nutmeg, cloves, and cubeb pepper in Maluku.[34] Dutch and British traders followed. In 1602 the Dutch established the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and became the dominant European power. Following bankruptcy, the VOC was formally dissolved in 1800, and the government of the Netherlands established the Dutch East Indies as a nationalised colony.[35]

File:Presiden Sukarno.jpg

Sukarno, The Founding Father and First President of Indonesia.

World War II and post-independence[]

For most of the colonial period, Dutch control over the archipelago was tenuous outside of coastal strongholds; only in the early 20th century did Dutch dominance extend to what was to become Indonesia's present boundaries.[36] Japanese occupation during the Second World War ended Dutch rule[37][38] and encouraged the previously suppressed Indonesian independence movement.[39] A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of the Japanese occupation.[40] Two days after the surrender of Japan in August 1945, Sukarno, an influential nationalist leader, declared independence and was appointed President.[41][42][43] The Netherlands tried to reestablish their rule, and the resulting conflict ended in December 1949, when in the face of international pressure, the Dutch formally recognised Indonesian independence[42][44] with the exception of the Dutch territory of West New Guinea, which was incorporated into Indonesia following the 1962 New York Agreement, and the UN-mandated Act of Free Choice of 1969[45] which was questionable and has resulted in a longtime independence movement.[46]

New Order and Reformation era[]

Sukarno moved Indonesia from democracy towards authoritarianism, and maintained his power base by balancing the opposing forces of the military and the Partai Komunis Indonesia (Communist Party of Indonesia).[47] An attempted coup on 30 September 1965 was countered by the army, who led a violent anti-communist purge, during which the PKI was blamed for the coup and effectively destroyed.[48][49][50] Hundreds of thousands of people are estimated to have been killed.[51][52] The head of the military, General Suharto, outmaneuvered the politically weakened Sukarno and was formally appointed president in March 1968. His New Order administration[53] was supported by the US government,[54][55][56] and encouraged foreign direct investment in Indonesia, which was a major factor in the subsequent three decades of substantial economic growth. However, the authoritarian "New Order" was widely accused of corruption and suppression of political opposition.[37][57][58]

Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the late 1990s Asian financial crisis.[59] This led to popular protest against the New Order which led to Suharto's resignation in May 1998.[60] In 1999, East Timor voted to secede from Indonesia, after a twenty-five-year military occupation that was marked by international condemnation of repression of the East Timorese.[61] Since Suharto's resignation, a strengthening of democratic processes has included a regional autonomy program, and the first direct presidential election in 2004. Political and economic instability, social unrest, corruption, and terrorism slowed progress; however, in the last five years the economy has performed strongly. Although relations among different religious and ethnic groups are largely harmonious, sectarian discontent and violence have persisted.[62] A political settlement to an armed separatist conflict in Aceh was achieved in 2005.[63] Joko Widodo was elected as President in 2014 Indonesian presidential election. Template:Clear

Government and politics[]

Main article: Politics of Indonesia
File:Indonesia DPR session.jpg

A session of the People's Representative Council in Jakarta

Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. As a unitary state, power is concentrated in the central government. Following the resignation of President Suharto in 1998, Indonesian political and governmental structures have undergone major reforms. Four amendments to the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia[64] have revamped the executive, judicial, and legislative branches.[65] The president of Indonesia is the head of state and head of government, commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces, and the director of domestic governance, policy-making, and foreign affairs. The president appoints a council of ministers, who are not required to be elected members of the legislature. The 2004 presidential election was the first in which the people directly elected the president and vice-president.[66] The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms.[67]

The highest representative body at national level is Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (People's Consultative Assembly). Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating the president, and formalising broad outlines of state policy. It has the power to impeach the president.[68] The MPR comprises two houses; Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (People's Representative Council) or DPR, with 560 members, and Dewan Perwakilan Daerah (Regional Representative Council) or DPD, with 132 members.[69] The DPR passes legislation and monitors the executive branch; party-aligned members are elected for five-year terms by proportional representation.[65] Reforms since 1998 have markedly increased the DPR's role in national governance.[70] The DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.[71]

Most civil disputes appear before Pengadilan Negeri (State Court); appeals are heard before Pengadilan Tinggi (High Court). Mahkamah Agung is the country's highest court, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews. Other courts include the Commercial Court, which handles bankruptcy and insolvency; Pengadilan Tata Negara (State Administrative Court) to hear administrative law cases against the government; Mahkamah Konstitusi (Constitutional Court) to hear disputes concerning legality of law, general elections, dissolution of political parties, and the scope of authority of state institutions; and Pengadilan Agama (Religious Court) to deal with codified Sharia Law cases.[72]

Foreign relations and military[]

File:Obama and Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono in arrival ceremony cropped.jpg

Former President of Indonesia Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono with Barack Obama, the President of United States, in ceremony at the Istana Merdeka in Jakarta, 9 November 2010. Obama has become popular in Indonesia due to the years he spent in Jakarta as a child.[73]

Main article: Foreign relations of Indonesia

In contrast to Sukarno's anti-imperialistic antipathy to Western powers and tensions with Malaysia, Indonesia's foreign relations since the Suharto New Order have been based on economic and political co-operation with Western nations.[74] Indonesia maintains close relationships with its neighbours in Asia, and is a founding member of ASEAN and the East Asia Summit.[69] The nation restored relations with the People's Republic of China in 1990 following a freeze in place since anti-communist purges early in the Suharto era.[72] Indonesia has been a member of the United Nations since 1950,[75] and was a founder of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation).[69] Indonesia is signatory to the ASEAN Free Trade Area agreement, the Cairns Group, and the WTO, and has historically been a member of OPEC, although it withdrew in 2008 as it was no longer a net exporter of oil. Indonesia has received humanitarian and development aid since 1966, in particular from the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan.[69]

The Indonesian government has worked with other countries to apprehend and prosecute perpetrators of major bombings linked to militant Islamism and Al-Qaeda.[76] The deadliest bombing killed 202 people (including 164 international tourists) in the Bali resort town of Kuta in 2002.[77] The attacks, and subsequent travel warnings issued by other countries, severely damaged Indonesia's tourism industry and foreign investment prospects.[78]

Indonesia's armed forces (TNI) include the army (TNI–AD), navy (TNI–AL, which includes marines), and air force (TNI–AU).[79] The army has about 400,000 active-duty personnel. Defense spending in the national budget was 4% of GDP in 2006, and is controversially supplemented by revenue from military commercial interests and foundations.[80] One of the reforms following the 1998 resignation of Suharto was the removal of formal TNI representation in parliament; nevertheless, its political influence remains extensive.[81]

Separatist movements in the provinces of Aceh and Papua have led to armed conflict, and subsequent allegations of human rights abuses and brutality from all sides.[82][83] Following a sporadic thirty-year guerrilla war between the Gerakan Aceh Merdeka (GAM) and the Indonesian military, a ceasefire agreement was reached in 2005.[84] In Papua, there has been a significant, albeit imperfect, implementation of regional autonomy laws, and a reported decline in the levels of violence and human rights abuses, since the presidency of Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.[85]Template:Clear

Administrative divisions[]

Main article: Provinces of Indonesia
File:Merdeka Square Monas 02.jpg

Monas as a landmark of capital of Indonesia, Jakarta

Administratively, Indonesia consists of 34 provinces, five of which have special status. Each province has its own legislature and governor. The provinces are subdivided into regencies (kabupaten) and cities (kota), which are further subdivided into districts (kecamatan or distrik in Papua and West Papua), and again into administrative villages (either desa, kelurahan, kampung, nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh). Village is the lowest level of government administration in Indonesia. Furthermore, a village is divided into several community groups (rukun warga (RW)) which are further divided into neighbourhood groups (rukun tetangga (RT)). In Java the desa (village) is divided further into smaller units called dusun or dukuh (hamlets), these units are the same as rukun warga. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in 2001, the regencies and cities have become the key administrative units, responsible for providing most government services. The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected lurah or kepala desa (village chief).

The provinces of Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua, and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces. The Acehnese government, for example, has the right to create certain elements of an independent legal system; in 2003, it instituted a form of Sharia Law (Islamic law).[86] Yogyakarta was granted the status of Special Region in recognition of its pivotal role in supporting Indonesian Republicans during the Indonesian Revolution and its willingness to join Indonesia as a republic.[87] Papua, formerly known as Irian Jaya, was granted special autonomy status in 2001 and was split into Papua and West Papua in February 2003.[88][89] Jakarta is the country's special capital region.

Template:Indonesia provinces

Indonesian provinces and their capitals, listed by region

Indonesian name is in parentheses if different from English.
* indicates provinces with special status

Template:Col-break Sumatra

  • Aceh (Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam) * – Banda Aceh
  • North Sumatra (Sumatera Utara) – Medan
  • West Sumatra (Sumatera Barat) – Padang
  • Riau – Pekanbaru
  • Riau Islands (Kepulauan Riau) – Tanjung Pinang
  • Jambi – Jambi (city)
  • South Sumatra (Sumatera Selatan) – Palembang
  • Bangka-Belitung (Kepulauan Bangka-Belitung) – Pangkal Pinang
  • Bengkulu – Bengkulu (city)
  • Lampung – Bandar Lampung


  • Special Capital Region of Jakarta* (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta)  – Jakarta
  • Banten – Serang
  • West Java (Jawa Barat) – Bandung
  • Central Java (Jawa Tengah) – Semarang
  • Yogyakarta Special Region* (Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta) – Yogyakarta (city)
  • East Java (Jawa Timur) – Surabaya

Lesser Sunda Islands

  • Bali – Denpasar
  • West Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Barat) – Mataram
  • East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur) – Kupang



  • West Kalimantan (Kalimantan Barat) – Pontianak
  • Central Kalimantan (Kalimantan Tengah) – Palangkaraya
  • South Kalimantan (Kalimantan Selatan) – Banjarmasin
  • East Kalimantan (Kalimantan Timur) – Samarinda
  • North Kalimantan (Kalimantan Utara) – Tanjung Selor


  • North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara) – Manado
  • Gorontalo – Gorontalo (city)
  • Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah) – Palu
  • West Sulawesi (Sulawesi Barat) – Mamuju
  • South Sulawesi (Sulawesi Selatan) – Makassar
  • South East Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tenggara) – Kendari

Maluku Islands

  • Maluku – Ambon
  • North Maluku (Maluku Utara) – Sofifi

Western New Guinea

  • West Papua* (Papua Barat) – Manokwari
  • Papua* – Jayapura


Main article: Geography of Indonesia

Mount Semeru and Mount Bromo in East Java.

Indonesia lies between latitudes 11°S and 6°N, and longitudes 95°E and 141°E. It consists of 17,508 islands, about 6,000 of which are inhabited.[90] These are scattered over both sides of the equator. The largest are Java, Sumatra, Borneo (shared with Brunei and Malaysia), New Guinea (shared with Papua New Guinea), and Sulawesi. Indonesia shares land borders with Malaysia on Borneo, Papua New Guinea on the island of New Guinea, and East Timor on the island of Timor. Indonesia shares maritime borders across narrow straits with Singapore, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Palau to the north, and with Australia to the south. The capital, Jakarta, is on Java and is the nation's largest city, followed by Surabaya, Bandung, Medan, and Semarang.[91]

At 1,919,440 square kilometres (741,050 sq mi), Indonesia is the world's 15th-largest country in terms of land area and world's 7th-largest country in terms of combined sea and land area.[92] Its average population density is 134 people per square kilometre (347 per sq mi), 79th in the world,[93] although Java, the world's most populous island,[94] has a population density of 940 people per square kilometre (2,435 per sq mi). At Template:Convert, Puncak Jaya in Papua is Indonesia's highest peak, and Lake Toba in Sumatra its largest lake, with an area of 1,145 square kilometres (442 sq mi). The country's largest rivers are in Kalimantan, and include the Mahakam and Barito; such rivers are communication and transport links between the island's river settlements.[95]

Indonesia's location on the edges of the Pacific, Eurasian, and Australian tectonic plates makes it the site of numerous volcanoes and frequent earthquakes. Indonesia has at least 150 active volcanoes,[96] including Krakatoa and Tambora, both famous for their devastating eruptions in the 19th century. The eruption of the Toba supervolcano, approximately 70,000 years ago, was one of the largest eruptions ever, and a global catastrophe. Recent disasters due to seismic activity include the 2004 tsunami that killed an estimated 167,736 in northern Sumatra,[97] and the Yogyakarta earthquake in 2006. However, volcanic ash is a major contributor to the high agricultural fertility that has historically sustained the high population densities of Java and Bali.[98]

Template:Anchor Lying along the equator, Indonesia has a tropical climate, with two distinct monsoonal wet and dry seasons. Average annual rainfall in the lowlands varies from Template:Convert, and up to Template:Convert in mountainous regions. Mountainous areas – particularly in the west coast of Sumatra, West Java, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua – receive the highest rainfall. Humidity is generally high, averaging about 80%. Temperatures vary little throughout the year; the average daily temperature range of Jakarta is Template:Convert.[99]


File:Man of the woods.JPG

The critically endangered Sumatran orangutan, a great ape endemic to Indonesia.

Main article: Fauna of Indonesia

Indonesia's size, tropical climate, and archipelagic geography, support the world's second highest level of biodiversity after Brazil.[100] Its flora and fauna is a mixture of Asian and Australasian species.[101] The islands of the Sunda Shelf (Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Bali) were once linked to the Asian mainland, and have a wealth of Asian fauna. Large species such as the tiger, rhinoceros, orangutan, elephant, and leopard, were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically. Forests cover approximately 60% of the country.[102] In Sumatra and Kalimantan, these are predominantly of Asian species. However, the forests of the smaller, and more densely populated Java, have largely been removed for human habitation and agriculture. Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku – having been long separated from the continental landmasses—have developed their own unique flora and fauna.[103] Papua was part of the Australian landmass, and is home to a unique fauna and flora closely related to that of Australia, including over 600 bird species.[104]

File:Komodo dragon at Komodo National Park.jpg

Indonesian dragon, the largest lizard in the world

Indonesia is second only to Australia in terms of total endemic species, with 36% of its 1,531 species of bird and 39% of its 515 species of mammal being endemic.[105] Indonesia's Template:Convert of coastline are surrounded by tropical seas that contribute to the country's high level of biodiversity. Indonesia has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches, sand dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, sea grass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.[11] Indonesia is one of Coral Triangle countries with the world's greatest diversity of coral reef fish with more than 1,650 species in eastern Indonesia only.[106] The British naturalist, Alfred Wallace, described a dividing line between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species.[107] Known as the Wallace Line, it runs roughly north–south along the edge of the Sunda Shelf, between Kalimantan and Sulawesi, and along the deep Lombok Strait, between Lombok and Bali. West of the line the flora and fauna are more Asian; moving east from Lombok, they are increasingly Australian. In his 1869 book, The Malay Archipelago, Wallace described numerous species unique to the area.[108] The region of islands between his line and New Guinea is now termed Wallacea.[107]


Main article: Environment of Indonesia

Indonesia's high population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues, which are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance.[109] Issues include large-scale deforestation (much of it illegal) and related wildfires causing heavy smog over parts of western Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore; over-exploitation of marine resources; and environmental problems associated with rapid urbanisation and economic development, including air pollution, traffic congestion, garbage management, and reliable water and waste water services.[109] Deforestation and the destruction of peatlands make Indonesia the world's third largest emitter of greenhouse gases.[110] Habitat destruction threatens the survival of indigenous and endemic species, including 140 species of mammals identified by the World Conservation Union (IUCN) as threatened, and 15 identified as critically endangered, including the Bali starling,[111] Sumatran orangutan,[112] and Javan rhinoceros.[111] Much of Indonesia's deforestation is caused by forest clearing for the palm oil industry, which has cleared 18 million hectares of forest for palm oil expansion. Palm oil expansion requires land reallocation as well as changes to the local and natural ecosystems. Palm oil expansion can generate wealth for local communities, but it can also degrade ecosystems and cause social problems.[113]


Main article: Economy of Indonesia

Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play significant roles.[114] The country is the largest economy in Southeast Asia and a member of the G-20 major economies.[115] Indonesia's estimated gross domestic product (nominal), as of 2012 was US$928.274 billion with estimated nominal per capita GDP was US$3,797, and per capita GDP PPP was US$4,943 (international dollars).[116] The gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1 trillion[4] and the debt ratio to the GDP is 26%.[117] According to World Bank affiliated report based on 2011 data, the Indonesian economy was the world's 10th largest by nominal GDP (PPP based), with the country contributing 2.3 percent of global economic output.[118][119] The industry sector is the economy's largest and accounts for 46.4% of GDP (2012), this is followed by services (38.6%) and agriculture (14.4%). However, since 2012, the service sector has employed more people than other sectors, accounting for 48.9% of the total labour force, this has been followed by agriculture (38.6%) and industry (22.2%).[120] Agriculture, however, had been the country's largest employer for centuries.[121][122]

According to World Trade Organization data, Indonesia was the 27th biggest exporting country in the world in 2010, moving up three places from a year before.[123] Indonesia's main export markets (2009) are Japan (17.28%), Singapore (11.29%), the United States (10.81%), and China (7.62%). The major suppliers of imports to Indonesia are Singapore (24.96%), China (12.52%), and Japan (8.92%). In 2005, Indonesia ran a trade surplus with export revenues of US$83.64 billion and import expenditure of US$62.02 billion. The country has extensive natural resources, including crude oil, natural gas, tin, copper, and gold. Indonesia's major imports include machinery and equipment, chemicals, fuels, and foodstuffs, and the country's major export commodities include oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, rubber, and textiles.[90]

File:Jakarta Skyline Part 2.jpg

Jakarta, the capital of Indonesia and the country's largest commercial center.

The tourism sector contributes to around US$9 billion of foreign exchange in 2012, and ranked as the 4th largest among goods and services export sectors.[124] Singapore, Malaysia, Australia, China and Japan are the top five source of visitors to Indonesia.

In the 1960s the economy deteriorated drastically as a result of political instability, a young and inexperienced government, and economic nationalism, which resulted in severe poverty and hunger. By the time of Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the economy was in chaos with 1,000% annual inflation, shrinking export revenues, crumbling infrastructure, factories operating at minimal capacity, and negligible investment. Following President Sukarno's downfall in the mid-1960s, the New Order administration brought a degree of discipline to economic policy that quickly brought inflation down, stabilised the currency, rescheduled foreign debt, and attracted foreign aid and investment. (See Berkeley Mafia). Indonesia was until recently Southeast Asia's only member of OPEC, and the 1970s oil price raises provided an export revenue windfall that contributed to sustained high economic growth rates, averaging over 7% from 1968 to 1981.[125] Following further reforms in the late 1980s,[126] foreign investment flowed into Indonesia, particularly into the rapidly developing export-oriented manufacturing sector, and from 1989 to 1997, the Indonesian economy grew by an average of over 7%.[127][128]

Indonesia was the country hardest hit by the Asian financial crisis of 1997–98. During the crisis there were sudden and large capital outflows leading the rupiah to go into free fall. Against the US dollar the rupiah dropped from about Rp 2,600 in late 1997 to a low point of around Rp 17,000 some months later and the economy shrank by a remarkable 13.7%. These developments led to widespread economic distress across the economy and contributed to the political crisis of 1998 which saw Suharto resign as president.[129] The rupiah later stabilised in the Rp. 8,000 range[130] and economic growth returned to 4% per year by 2000.[131] However, the currency still fluctuates, dropping below Rp 11,000 per dollar in September 2013. In addition, corruption has been a persistent problem. Transparency International, for example, has since ranked Indonesia below 100 in its Corruption Perceptions Index.[132][133] Since 2007, however, with the improvement in banking sector and domestic consumption, national economic growth has accelerated to over 6% annually[134][135][136] and this helped the country weather the 2008–2009 global recession.[137] The Indonesian economy performed strongly during the Global Financial Crisis and in 2012 its GDP grew by over 6%.[138] The country regained its investment grade rating in late 2011 after losing it in 1997.[139] However, as of 2012, an estimated 11.7% of the population lived below the poverty line and the official open unemployment rate was 6.1%.[90]


Main article: Demographics of Indonesia

According to the 2010 national census, the population of Indonesia is 237.6 million,[140] with high population growth at 1.9%.[141] 58% of the population lives in Java,[140] the world's most populous island.[94] In 1961 the first post-colonial census gave a total population of 97 million.[142] Indonesia's population is expected to grow to around 269 million by 2020 and 321 million by 2050.[143]


Main article: Ethnic groups in Indonesia
File:Indonesia Ethnic Groups Map English.svg

The map of major ethnic groups in Indonesia.

There are around 300 distinct native ethnic groups in Indonesia, and 742 different languages and dialects.[144][145] Most Indonesians are descended from Austronesian-speaking peoples whose languages can be traced to Proto-Austronesian, which possibly originated in Taiwan. Another major grouping are Melanesians, who inhabit eastern Indonesia.[23][91][146] The largest ethnic group is the Javanese, who comprise 42% of the population, and are politically and culturally dominant.[147] The Sundanese, ethnic Malays, and Madurese are the largest non-Javanese groups.[148] A sense of Indonesian nationhood exists alongside strong regional identities.[149] Social, religious and ethnic tensions have triggered horrendous violence.[150][151][152] Chinese Indonesians are an influential ethnic minority comprising 3–4% of the population.[153] Much of the country's privately owned commerce and wealth is Chinese-Indonesian-controlled.[154][155] Chinese businesses in Indonesia are part of the larger bamboo network, a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia that share common family and cultural ties.[156] This has contributed to considerable resentment, and even anti-Chinese violence.[157][158][159]


File:COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM De minaret bij de moskee van Koedoes TMnr 10016672.jpg

Minaret of the Menara Kudus Mosque, influenced by both Islamic and mainly Javanese art and architecture.

Main article: Religion in Indonesia

While religious freedom is stipulated in the Indonesian constitution,[160] the government officially recognises only six religions: Islam, Protestantism, Roman Catholicism, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism.[7] Indonesia is the world's most populous Muslim-majority nation, at 87.2% in 2010, with the majority being Sunni (99%).[161][162][163] The Shias and Ahmadis respectively constitute 0.5% and 0.2% of the Muslim population.[164] In 2010, Christians made up almost 10% of the population (among them 7% were Protestant, 2.9% Roman Catholic), 1.7% were Hindu, and 0.9% were Buddhist or other. Most Indonesian Hindus are Balinese,[165] and most Buddhists in modern-day Indonesia are ethnic Chinese.[166] Though now minority religions, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was first adopted by Indonesians in northern Sumatra in the 13th century, through the influence of traders, and became the country's dominant religion by the 16th century.[167] Roman Catholicism was brought to Indonesia by early Portuguese colonialists and missionaries,[168][169] and the Protestant denominations are largely a result of Dutch Reformed and Lutheran missionary efforts during the country's colonial period.[170][171][172] A large proportion of Indonesians—such as the Javanese abangan, Balinese Hindus, and Dayak Christians—practice a less orthodox, syncretic form of their religion, which draws on local customs and beliefs.[173]Template:Clear


Education in Indonesia is compulsory for twelve years.[174][175] Parents can choose between state-run, non sectarian public schools supervised by Depdiknas (Department of National Education) or private or semi-private religious (usually Islamic) schools supervised and financed by the Department of Religious Affairs.[176] The enrolment rate is 94% for primary education (2011), 75% for secondary education, and 27% for tertiary education. The literacy rate is 93% (2011).[177]

Cities and towns[]

Template:Largest cities of Indonesia


Main article: Languages of Indonesia

More than 700 local languages are spoken in thousands islands of Indonesia.[178] Most belong to the Austronesian language family, with a few Papuan languages also spoken. The official language is Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian language), a variant of Malay,[179] which was used in the archipelago, — borrowing heavily from local languages of Indonesia such as Javanese, Sundanese, Minangkabau, etc. The Indonesian language is primarily used in commerce, administration, education and the media, but most Indonesians speak other languages, such as Javanese, as their first language.[178]

Indonesian language is based on the prestige dialect of Malay, that of the Johor-Riau Sultanate, which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago, standards of which are the official languages in Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei. Indonesian is universally taught in schools, consequently it is spoken by nearly every Indonesian. It is the language of business, politics, national media, education, and academia. It was promoted by Indonesian nationalists in the 1920s, and declared the official language under the name Bahasa Indonesia on the proclamation of independence in 1945. Most Indonesians speak at least one of the several hundred local languages and dialects, often as their first language. Of these, Javanese is the most widely spoken as the language of the largest ethnic group.[90] On the other hand, Papua has over 270 indigenous Papuan and Austronesian languages,[180] in a region of about 2.7 million people.


File:Indonesian athletes marching, SEA Games 2011 Opening.jpg

SEA Games 2011 opening ceremony in Palembang.

Main article: Sport in Indonesia

Sports in Indonesia are generally male-oriented and spectator sports are often associated with illegal gambling.[181] The most popular sports are badminton and football. Indonesian players have won the Thomas Cup (the world team championship of men's badminton) thirteen of the twenty-six times that it has been held since 1949, as well as numerous Olympic medals since the sport gained full Olympic status in 1992. Its women have won the Uber Cup, the female equivalent of the Thomas Cup, twice, in 1994 and 1996. Liga Indonesia is the country's premier football club league. Traditional sports include sepak takraw, and bull racing in Madura. In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba. Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art.


Main article: Tourism in Indonesia
File:Raja Ampat 2.jpg

Raja Ampat, one of the world's richest marine biodiversity

Both nature and culture are major components of Indonesian tourism. The natural heritage can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate. These natural attractions are complemented by a rich cultural heritage that reflects Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity, that 719 living languages are used across the archipelago. The ancient Prambanan and Borobudur temples, Toraja and Bali, with its Hindu festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.

File:Kelimutu 2007-07-21.jpg

Kelimutu lakes, the crater-lakes with three different colors in Ende, Flores island.

Indonesia has a well-preserved natural ecosystem with rainforests that stretch over about 57% of Indonesia's land (225 million acres), approximately 2% of which are mangrove systems. Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular tourist destinations. Moreover, Indonesia has one of longest coastlines in the world, measuring 54,716 kilometres (33,999 mi).

With 20% of the world's coral reefs, over 3,000 different species of fish and 600 coral species, deep water trenches, volcanic sea mounts, World War II wrecks, and an endless variety of macro life, scuba diving in Indonesia is both excellent and inexpensive.[182] Bunaken National Marine Park, at the northern tip of Sulawesi, claims to have seven times more genera of coral than Hawaii,[183] and has more than 70% of all the known fish species of the Indo-Western Pacific.[184] According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat area is the highest recorded on Earth.[185] Moreover, there are over 3,500 species living in Indonesian waters, including sharks, dolphins, manta rays, turtles, morays, cuttlefish, octopus and scorpionfish, compared to 1,500 on the Great Barrier Reef.


Main article: Culture of Indonesia

Indonesia has about 300 ethnic groups, each with cultural identities developed over centuries, and influenced by Indian, Arabic, Chinese, and European sources. Traditional Javanese and Balinese dances, for example, contain aspects of Hindu culture and mythology, as do wayang kulit (shadow puppet) performances. Textiles such as batik, ikat, ulos and songket are created across Indonesia in styles that vary by region. The Indonesian film industry's popularity peaked in the 1980s and dominated cinemas in Indonesia,[186] although it declined significantly in the early 1990s.[187] Between 2000 and 2005, the number of Indonesian films released each year has steadily increased.[186]


Main article: Architecture of Indonesia
File:Pagaruyung palace.jpg

Pagaruyung Palace

Architecture reflects the diversity of cultural that have shaped Indonesia as a whole. Invaders, colonisers, missionaries, merchants and traders brought cultural changes that had a profound effect on building styles and techniques. The most dominant influences on Indonesian architecture have traditionally been Indian; however, Chinese, Arab, and European architectural influences have been significant. The Indonesia traditional houses are at the centre of a web of customs, social relations, traditional laws, taboos, myths and religions that bind the villagers together. The house provides the main focus for the family and its community, and is the point of departure for many activities of its residents.


Main article: Music of Indonesia

The music in Indonesia predates historical records, various native Indonesian tribes often incorporate chants and songs accompanied with musics instruments in their rituals. The Indonesian traditional instruments includes Angklung, kecapi suling, gong, gamelan and sasando. One of the most popular music genres in Indonesia is Dangdut.


Main article: Indonesian literature

The oldest evidence of writing in Indonesia is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century. Important figures in modern Indonesian literature include: Dutch author Multatuli, who criticised treatment of the Indonesians under Dutch colonial rule; Sumatrans Muhammad Yamin and Hamka, who were influential pre-independence nationalist writers and politicians;[188] and proletarian writer Pramoedya Ananta Toer, Indonesia's most famous novelist.[189][190] Many of Indonesia's peoples have strongly rooted oral traditions, which help to define and preserve their cultural identities.[191]


Main article: Indonesian cuisine
File:Food Sundanese Restaurant, Jakarta.jpg

Indonesian dishes, including ikan bakar, ayam goreng, nasi timbel, sambal, tempeh goreng, tahu, and sayur asem.

Indonesian cuisine is one of the most vibrant and colorful cuisines in the world, full of intense flavour.[192] Rice is the main staple food and is served with side dishes of meat and vegetables. Indonesian dishes began to gain worldwide recognition, with three of its popular dishes make it to the list of 'World's 50 Most Delicious Foods (Readers' Pick)', a worldwide online poll by 35,000 people held by CNN International. Rendang is the most delicious on the list, followed by nasi goreng in number two, and satay in number fourteen.[193] Some popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng,[194] gado-gado,[195][196] sate,[197] soto[198] and bakso are ubiquitous in the country and considered as national dishes.


Main article: Media of Indonesia

Media freedom in Indonesia increased considerably after the end of President Suharto's rule, during which the now-defunct Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media, and restricted foreign media.[199] The TV market includes ten national commercial networks, and provincial networks that compete with public TVRI. Private radio stations carry their own news bulletins and foreign broadcasters supply programs. At a reported 25 million users in 2008,[200] Internet usage was estimated at 12.5% in September 2009.[201] More than 30 million cell phones are sold in Indonesia each year, and 27% of them are local brands.[202]

See also[]


  • List of Indonesia-related topics
  • Index of Indonesia-related articles
  • Outline of Indonesia
  • Template:Wikipedia books link



  1. Template:Cite journal
  2. Vickers, p. 117
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Template:Cite web
  5. Template:Cite web
  6. Template:Cite web
  7. 7.0 7.1 Template:Cite journal
  8. "The Naming Procedures of Indonesia's Islands", Tenth United Nations Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names, New York, 31 July – 9 August 2012, United Nations Economic and Social Council
  9. Template:Cite journal; correction.
  10. Template:Cite journal
  11. 11.0 11.1 Template:Cite book
  12. 12.0 12.1 Template:Cite news
  13. Template:Cite journal
  14. Template:Cite journal
  15. Template:Cite journal
  16. 16.0 16.1 Template:Cite journal
  17. Template:Cite book
  18. Template:Cite journal
  19. Finding showing human ancestor older than previously thought offers new insights into evolution. 5 July 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  20. Template:Cite journal cited in Template:Cite book; Template:Cite journal cited in Template:Cite book; Template:Cite journal cited in Template:Cite book
  21. Template:Cite journal
  22. Evidence of 42,000 year old deep sea fishing revealed | Archaeology News from Past Horizons. 26 November 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2012.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Taylor, pp. 5–7
  24. Taylor, pp. 8–9
  25. Taylor, pp. 15–18
  26. Taylor, pp. 3, 9–11, 13–5, 18–20, 22–3
  27. Vickers, pp. 18–20, 60, 133–4
  28. Guide to the Temples of Java (Indonesia) by Approach Guides,David Raezer,Jennifer Raezer
  29. Taylor, pp. 22–26
  30. Ricklefs, p. 3
  31. Template:Cite journal
  32. Ricklefs, pp. 3–14
  33. Ricklefs (1991), pp. 12–14
  34. Ricklefs (1991), pp. 22–24
  35. Ricklefs, p. 24
  36. Dutch troops were constantly engaged in quelling rebellions both on and off Java. The influence of local leaders such as Prince Diponegoro in central Java, Imam Bonjol in central Sumatra and Pattimura in Maluku, and a bloody thirty-year war in Aceh weakened the Dutch and tied up the colonial military forces.(Template:Cite journal)
  37. 37.0 37.1 Ricklefs
  38. Template:Cite journal
  39. Template:Cite journal
  40. Cited in: Dower, John W. War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (1986; Pantheon; ISBN 0-394-75172-8)
  41. Template:Cite journal
  42. 42.0 42.1 Template:Cite journal
  43. Taylor, p. 325
  44. Template:Cite web
  45. Indonesia's 1969 Takeover of West Papua Not by "Free Choice". National Security Archive, Suite 701, Gelman Library, The George Washington University.
  46. Irian Jaya Under the Gun, Jim Elmslie, University of Hawaii Press, 2002, pg. 12
  47. Ricklefs, pp. 237–280
  48. Friend, pp. 107–109
  49. Template:Cite video
  50. Ricklefs, pp. 280–283, 284, 287–290
  51. Template:Cite journal
  52. Template:Cite journal
  53. Template:Cite journal
  54. US National Archives, RG 59 Records of Department of State; cable no. 868, ref: Embtel 852, 5 October 1965.
  55. Vickers, p. 163
  56. David Slater, Geopolitics and the Post-Colonial: Rethinking North–South Relations, London: Blackwell, p. 70
  57. Vickers
  58. Schwarz
  59. Template:Cite book
  60. Template:Cite news
  61. Template:Cite web; Template:Cite web
  62. Template:Cite journal
  63. Template:Cite news
  64. In 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001
  65. 65.0 65.1 Template:Cite journal
  66. Template:Cite press release
  67. (2002), The fourth Amendment of 1945 Indonesia Constitution, Chapter III – The Executive Power, Art. 7.
  68. Template:Cite book
  69. 69.0 69.1 69.2 69.3 Template:Cite web
  70. Reforms include total control of statutes production without executive branch interventions; all members are now elected (reserved seats for military representatives have now been removed); and the introduction of fundamental rights exclusive to the DPR. (see Harijanti and Lindsey 2006)
  71. Based on the 2001 constitution amendment, the DPD comprises four popularly elected non-partisan members from each of the thirty-three provinces for national political representation. Template:Cite book
  72. 72.0 72.1 Template:Cite web
  73. Template:Cite web
  74. Template:Cite web
  75. Indonesia temporarily withdrew from the UN on 20 January 1965 in response to Malaysia being elected as a non-permanent member of the Security Council. It announced its intention to "resume full cooperation with the United Nations and to resume participation in its activities" on 19 September 1966, and was invited to re-join the UN on 28 September 1966.
  76. Template:Cite web; Template:Cite web
  77. Template:Cite news
  78. Template:Cite press release
  79. Template:Cite news
  80. Template:Cite news
  81. Friend, pp. 473–475, 484
  82. Friend, pp. 270–273, 477–480
  83. Template:Cite news
  84. Template:Cite news; Template:Cite news
  85. Template:Cite news; Template:Cite journal
  86. Template:Cite journal
  87. The positions of governor and its vice governor are prioritized for descendants of the Sultan of Yogyakarta and Paku Alam, respectively, much like a sultanate. (Elucidation on the Indonesia Law No. 22/1999 Regarding Regional Governance. People's Representative Council (1999). Chapter XIV Other Provisions, Art. 122; Template:PDFlink (translated version). The President of Republic of Indonesia (1974). Chapter VII Transitional Provisions, Art. 91)
  88. Part of the autonomy package was the introduction of the Papuan People's Council, which was tasked with arbitration and speaking on behalf of Papuan tribal customs. However, the implementation of the autonomy measures has been criticized as half-hearted and incomplete. Template:Cite news
  89. Template:Cite news
  90. 90.0 90.1 90.2 90.3 Template:Cite web
  91. 91.0 91.1 Template:Cite book
  92. Template:Cite web
  93. Template:Cite web
  94. 94.0 94.1 Template:Cite web
  95. Template:Cite encyclopedia
  96. Template:Cite web
  97. Template:Cite web
  98. Template:Cite book
  99. Template:Cite web
  100. Template:Cite book
  101. Template:Cite web
  102. Template:Cite web
  103. Template:Cite book; Template:Cite book
  104. Template:Cite web
  105. Template:Cite web
  106. Template:Cite news
  107. 107.0 107.1 Template:Cite book
  108. Template:Cite book
  109. 109.0 109.1 Template:Cite journal
  110. Template:Cite news
  111. 111.0 111.1 Template:IUCN2008 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name "IUCN" defined multiple times with different content
  112. Template:Cite web
  113. Template:Cite journal
  114. Template:Cite web
  115. Template:Cite web
  116. Template:Cite web
  117. Template:Cite web
  118. Template:Cite web
  119. Template:Cite web
  120. Template:Cite web
  121. Template:Cite web
  122. Template:Cite web
  123. Template:Cite news
  124. Template:Cite web
  125. Schwarz, pp. 52–57
  126. Following a slowing of growth in the 1980s, due to over regulation and dependence on declining oil prices, growth slowed to an average of 4.3% per annum between 1981 and 1988. A range of economic reforms were introduced in the late 1980s. Reforms included a managed devaluation of the rupiah to improve export competitiveness, and de-regulation of the financial sector (Schwarz, pp. 52–57).
  127. Schwarz, pp. 52–57.
  128. Template:Cite web
  129. Template:Cite web
  130. Template:Cite web
  131. Template:Cite web
  132. Template:Cite web
  133. Template:Cite web
  134. Template:Cite web
  135. Template:Cite web
  136. Template:Cite web
  137. Template:Cite web
  138. Template:Cite web
  139. Template:Cite web
  140. 140.0 140.1 Template:Cite web
  141. Template:Cite web
  142. Template:Cite news
  143. World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision (2012). Indonesia. Population (thousands). Median variant. 1950–2100. United Nations
  144. Template:Cite web
  145. Template:Cite web
  146. Template:Cite book
  147. Template:Cite book
  148. Small but significant populations of ethnic Chinese, Indians, Europeans and Arabs are concentrated mostly in urban areas.
  149. Ricklefs, p. 256
  150. Domestic migration (including the official Transmigrasi program) are a cause of violence including the massacre of hundreds of Madurese by a local Dayak community in West Kalimantan, and conflicts in Maluku, Central Sulawesi, and parts of Papua and West Papua Template:Cite journal
  151. Template:Cite web
  152. Template:Cite conference; Kyoto University: Sulawesi Kaken Team & Center for Southeast Asian Studies Template:PDFlink
  153. Johnston notes that less than 1% of the country's 210 million inhabitants described themselves as ethnic Chinese. Many sociologists regard this as a serious underestimate: they believe that somewhere between six million and seven million people of Chinese descent are now living in Indonesia. The Republic of China (Taiwan)'s Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission gives a figure of 7,776,000, including 207,000 of Taiwan origin; see Statistical Yearbook, Taipai: Overseas Compatriot Affairs Commission, 2007, pp. 11–13, ISSN 1024-4374. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  154. Schwarz, pp. 53, 80–81
  155. Friend, pp. 85–87, 164–165, 233–237
  156. Template:Cite book
  157. Template:Cite web
  158. Template:Cite web The riots in Jakarta in 1998—much of which were aimed at the Chinese—were, in part, expressions of this resentment. Template:Cite web
  159. Template:Cite web
  160. Template:Cite web
  161. Sunni and Shia Muslims. 27 January 2011.
  162. Template:Cite web
  163. Template:Cite web Muslim 207176162 (87.18%), Christian 16528513 (6.96), Catholic 6907873 (2.91), Hindu 4012116 (1.69), Buddhist 1703254 (0.72), Khong Hu Chu 117091 (0.05), Other 299617 (0.13), Not Stated 139582 (0.06), Not Asked 757118 (0.32), Total 237641326
  164. There are approximately 1 million Shia Muslims and 400,000 Ahmadi Muslims in the country which approximates to 0.5% and 0.2% of the total Muslim population. See:
    • Template:Cite web
    • Template:Cite web
  165. Template:Cite journal
  166. Template:Cite web
  167. Template:Cite web
  168. Ricklefs, pp. 25, 26, 28
  169. Template:Cite web
  170. Ricklefs, pp. 28, 62
  171. Vickers, p. 22
  172. Template:Cite book
  173. Magnis-Suseno, F. 1981, Javanese Ethics and World-View: The Javanese Idea of the Good Life, PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama, Jakarta, 1997, pp.15–18, ISBN 979-605-406-X; Template:Cite press release
  174. Template:Cite web
  175. Template:Cite web
  176. Template:Cite web
  177. Template:Cite web
  178. 178.0 178.1 Template:Cite web
  179. Template:Cite book
  180. Template:Cite web
  181. Template:Cite book
  182. Template:Cite web
  183. Template:Cite web
  184. Template:Cite web
  185. [1] Ultra Marine: In far eastern Indonesia, the Raja Ampat islands embrace a phenomenal coral wilderness, by David Doubilet, National Geographic, September 2007
  186. 186.0 186.1 Template:Cite news
  187. Template:Cite web
  188. Taylor, pp. 299–301
  189. Vickers, pp. 3–7
  190. Friend, pp. 74, 180
  191. Template:Cite web
  192. Template:Cite web
  193. Template:Cite news
  194. Template:Cite web
  195. Gado-Gado | Gado-Gado Recipe | Online Indonesian Food and Recipes at
  196. Template:Cite web
  197. Template:Cite web
  198. Template:Cite web
  199. Template:Cite book
  200. Template:Cite web
  201. Template:Cite web
  202. Template:Cite web

Further reading[]

  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book

External links[]

Template:Sister project links

General information

Template:Geographic location

Template:Indonesia topics Template:Government of Indonesia Template:Countries and territories of Southeast Asia

Template:Authority control

Template:Featured article