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Dr. Julius Jacobs was a Dutch physician who visited Bali in the early 1880s[1],[2].

In 1883, a book written in Dutch documenting his observations in Bali and Lombok entitled, "Eenigen tijd onder de Baliers: Eene reisbeschrijving met aanteekeningen betreffende Hygiene, Land en Volkenkunde van de eilanden Bali en Lombok" (Some time among the Balinese: A travel description with notes on Hygiene, Land and Anthropology of the islands of Bali and Lombok) was published by Batavia: G. Kolff & Co.

Jacobs he observed many dance performances by young boys dressed up like women:

"One knows that they are boys, and it is sickening to see men from all strata of Balinese society proffering their kepengs (Chinese coins) to have the chance to dance with these children, sometimes in the queerest postures; one is still more revolted to discover that these children, sometimes after exercising for hours in a perpendicular position, are compelled, utterly exhausted though they may be, to carry out horizontal maneuvers with the highest bidders, after being fondled by this man and kissed by that."

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This article was written by Roy Tan.