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The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. Following the Federation of Australia in 1901, the ships and resources of the separate colonial navies were integrated into a national force: the Commonwealth Naval Forces. Originally intended for local defence, the navy was granted the title of 'Royal Australian Navy' in 1911, and became increasingly responsible for defence of the region.

Britain's Royal Navy continued to support the RAN and provided additional blue-water defence capability in the Pacific up to the early years of World War II. Then, rapid wartime expansion saw the acquisition of large surface vessels and the building of many smaller warships. In the decade following the war, the RAN acquired a small number of aircraft carriers, the last of these paying off in 1982.

Today, the RAN consists of 47 commissioned vessels, 3 non-commissioned vessels and over 16,000 personnel. The navy is one of the largest and most sophisticated naval forces in the South Pacific region, with a significant presence in the Indian Ocean and worldwide operations in support of military campaigns and peacekeeping missions. The current Chief of Navy is Vice Admiral Tim Barrett.

History[]

Main article: History of the Royal Australian Navy

The Commonwealth Naval Forces were established on 1 March 1901, two months after the federation of Australia, when the naval forces of the separate Australian colonies were amalgamated. A period of uncertainty followed as the policy makers sought to determine the newly established force's requirements and purpose, with the debate focusing upon whether Australia's naval force would be structured mainly for local defence or whether it would be designed to serve as a fleet unit within a larger imperial force, controlled centrally by the British Admiralty.[1] In 1908–09, the decision was made to pursue a compromise solution, and the Australian government agreed to establish a force that would be used for local defence but which would be capable of forming a fleet unit within the imperial naval strategy, albeit without central control. As a result, the navy's force structure was set at "one battlecruiser, three light cruisers, six destroyers and three submarines".[2]

On 10 July 1911, King George V granted the service the title of "Royal Australian Navy".[3] The first of the RAN's new vessels, the destroyer Yarra, was completed in September 1910 and by the outbreak of the First World War the majority of the RAN's planned new fleet had been realised.[2] The Australian Squadron was placed under control of the British Admiralty,[4] and initially it was tasked with capturing many of Germany's South Pacific colonies and protecting Australian shipping from the German East Asia Squadron. Later in the war, most of the RAN's major ships operated as part of Royal Navy forces in the Mediterranean and North Seas, and then later in the Adriatic, and then the Black Sea following the surrender of the Ottoman Empire.[2]

In 1919, the RAN received a force of six destroyers, three sloops and six submarines from the Royal Navy,[5] but throughout the 1920s and early 1930s, the RAN was drastically reduced in size due to a variety of factors including political apathy and economic hardship as a result of the Great Depression.[6] In this time the focus of Australia's naval policy shifted from defence against invasion to trade protection,[7] and several fleet units were sunk as targets or scrapped. By 1923, the size of the navy had fallen to eight vessels,[6] and by the end of the decade it had fallen further to five, with just 3,500 personnel.[7] In the late 1930s, as international tensions increased, the RAN was modernised and expanded, with the service receiving primacy of funding over the Army and Air Force during this time as Australia began to prepare for war.[7]

Early in the Second World War, RAN ships again operated as part of Royal Navy formations, many serving with distinction in the Mediterranean, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Indian Ocean, and off the West African coast.[8] Following the outbreak of the Pacific War and the virtual destruction of British naval forces in south-east Asia, the RAN operated more independently, or as part of United States Navy formations. As the navy took on an even greater role, it was expanded significantly and at its height the RAN was the fourth-largest navy in the world, with 39,650 personnel operating 337 warships.[7] A total of 34 vessels were lost during the war, including three cruisers and four destroyers.[9]

After the Second World War, the size of the RAN was again reduced, but it gained new capabilities with the acquisition of two aircraft carriers, Sydney and Melbourne.[10] The RAN saw action in many Cold War–era conflicts in the Asia-Pacific region and operated alongside the Royal Navy and United States Navy off Korea, Malaysia, and Vietnam.[11] Since the end of the Cold War, the RAN has been part of Coalition forces in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean, operating in support of Operation Slipper and undertaking counter piracy operations. It was also deployed in support of Australian peacekeeping operations in East Timor and the Solomon Islands.[12]

RAN today[]

Command structure[]

The strategic command structure of the RAN was overhauled during the New Generation Navy changes. The RAN is commanded through Naval Headquarters (NHQ) in Canberra. The professional head is the Chief of Navy (CN), who holds the rank of Vice Admiral. NHQ is responsible for implementing policy decisions handed down from the Department of Defence and for overseeing tactical and operational issues that are the purview of the subordinate commands.Template:Citation needed

Beneath NHQ are two subordinate commands:

  • Fleet Command: fleet command is led by Commander Australian Fleet (COMAUSFLT). COMAUSFLT holds the rank of rear admiral; previously, this post was Flag Officer Commanding HM's Australian Fleet (FOCAF), created in 1911,[13] but the title was changed in 1988 to the Maritime Commander Australia. On 1 February 2007, the title changed again, becoming Commander Australian Fleet.[14] The nominated at-sea commander is Commodore Warfare (COMWAR), a one-star deployable task group commander. Fleet command has responsibility to CN for the full command of assigned assets, and to Joint Operations command for the provision of operationally ready forces.
  • Navy Strategic Command: the administrative element overseeing the RAN's training, engineering and logistical support needs. Instituted in 2000, the Systems Commander was appointed at the rank of commodore; in June 2008, the position was upgraded to the rank of rear admiral.

Fleet Command was previously made up of seven Force Element Groups, but after the New Generation Navy changes, this was restructured into four Force Commands:[15]

  • Fleet Air Arm, responsible for the navy's aviation assets
  • Mine Warfare, Hydrographic and Patrol Boat Force, an amalgamation of the previous Patrol Boat, Hydrographic, and Mine Warfare and Clearance Diving Forces, operating what are collectively termed the RAN's "minor war vessels"
  • Submarine Force, operating the Collins-class submarines
  • Surface Force, covering the RAN's surface combatants (generally ships of frigate size or larger)

Fleet[]

As of September 2017, the RAN fleet consisted of 50 warships, including destroyers, frigates, submarines, patrol boats and auxiliary ships.[16] Ships commissioned into the RAN are given the prefix HMAS (His/Her Majesty's Australian Ship).[17]

The RAN has two primary bases for its fleet:[18][19]

  • Fleet Base East, located at Template:HMAS, Sydney; and
  • Fleet Base West, located at Template:HMAS, near Perth.

In addition, three other bases are home to the majority of the RAN's minor war vessels:[20][21][22]

  • Template:HMAS, at Cairns;
  • Template:HMAS, at Darwin; and
  • Template:HMAS, at Sydney.

Current ships[]

Template:Further The RAN currently operates 48 commissioned vessels, made up of eight ship classes and three individual ships, plus two non-commissioned vessels. In addition, DMS Maritime operates a large number of civilian-crewed vessels under contract to the Australian Defence Force.

Commissioned vessels
Image Class/name Type Number Entered service Details
Collins class Submarine 6 2000 Anti-shipping, intelligence collection. Diesel-electric powered.
Canberra class Landing helicopter dock 2 2014 Amphibious warfare ships.
149x149px Hobart class Destroyer 1 (2) 2017 Air Warfare Destroyer. Two more to be commissioned.
Anzac class Frigate 8 1996 Anti-submarine and anti-aircraft frigate with 1 helicopter. Two more were built for the Royal New Zealand Navy.
Adelaide class Frigate 3 1985 General-purpose guided-missile frigate with 2 helicopters. Three more ships have been decommissioned.
Armidale class Patrol boat 13 2005 Coastal defence, maritime border, and fishery protection
Huon class Minehunter 6 1997 Minehunting. Four active, two laid up.
Leeuwin class Survey ship 2 2000 Hydrographic survey
Paluma class Survey launch 4 1989 Hydrographic survey
HMAS Choules FBE 2014 Template:HMAS
(Bay class)
Landing Ship Dock 1 2011 Heavy sealift and transport
Template:HMAS
(Durance class)
Replenishment ship 1 1986 Replenishment at sea and afloat support
Template:HMAS Replenishment ship 1 2006 Replenishment at sea and afloat support. Modified commercial tanker.
Non-commissioned vessels
Cape class Patrol boat 2 2015 Cape Byron and Cape Nelson were leased from the Australian Border Force to supplement Armidales during classwide remediation maintenance. ADV (Australian Defence Vessel) ship prefix.
Template:Ship Tall Ship 1 1988 Sail training ship

Aviation[]

Fleet Air Arm[]

Main article: Fleet Air Arm (RAN)

The Fleet Air Arm (previously known as the Australian Navy Aviation Group) provides the RAN's aviation capability. As of 2013, the FAA consists of three active squadrons plus a fourth being activated, operating five helicopter types in the anti-submarine warfare and maritime support roles.[23] The Fleet Air Arm is based at Template:HMAS in Nowra, New South Wales, and operates from the RAN's frigates, large amphibious warfare vessels, and large support ships.

LADS Flight[]

Main article: Laser Airborne Depth Sounder Flight RAN

In addition to the helicopter squadrons of the Fleet Air Arm, the RAN operates an additional flying unit that comes under the operational responsibility of the Australian Hydrographic Service. The Laser Airborne Depth Sounder Flight contains the sole remaining fixed-wing aircraft operated by the RAN, and is based at Template:HMAS in Cairns, Queensland.[24]

Gallery[]

Clearance Diving Branch[]

File:CDT-1.jpg

Clearance Divers during a ship boarding exercise in 2006 as a part of RIMPAC exercises.

Main article: Clearance Diving Branch (RAN)

The Clearance Diving Branch is composed of two Clearance Diving Teams (CDT) that serve as parent units for naval clearance divers:

  • Clearance Diving Team 1 (AUSCDT ONE), based at HMAS Waterhen in New South Wales; and
  • Clearance Diving Team 4 (AUSCDT FOUR), based at HMAS Stirling in Western Australia.

When clearance divers are sent into combat, Clearance Diving Team Three (AUSCDT THREE) is formed.

The CDTs have two primary roles:

  • Mine counter-measures (MCM) and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD); and
  • Maritime tactical operations.

Future[]

Template:Update

File:LHD Canberra fitting out.JPG

HMAS Canberra, a Canberra-class landing helicopter dock, being fitted out in 2013

Main article: Procurement programme of the Royal Australian Navy
File:HMAS Hobart under construction April 2015.JPG

Hobart, the lead ship of the RAN's new class of air-warfare destroyers, under construction in 2015

There are currently several major projects underway that will see upgrades to RAN capabilities:

  • Project AIR 9000 Phase 8 is a project to replace the RAN's Seahawk (and cancelled Kaman SH-2G(A) Super Seasprite) helicopters with 24 MH-60R Seahawk helicopters.
  • Project JP 2048 Phase 3 will provide six Heavy Landing Craft to replace the RAN's Balikpapan-class vessels. The project is planned to deliver capability in 2014–2016.
  • Project SEA 1429 will upgrade the Collins-class submarines with state-of-the-art heavyweight torpedoes.
  • Project SEA 1439 Phase 4A will equip the Collins-class submarines with a new tactical combat system.
  • Project SEA 1654 Phase 3 is a project to acquire a Sea Logistic Support and Replenishment Support vessel to replace the supply ship HMAS Success.
  • Project SEA 4000, under which the RAN will acquire three Hobart-class air warfare destroyers, built around the United States Navy Aegis air and surface combat management system. The vessels are to be based on the Spanish Álvaro de Bazán-class frigate.[25][26]

To boost the RAN's amphibious capability during the construction of the Canberra-class LHDs, the RAN acquired Template:HMAS (a former Bay-class landing ship of the British Royal Fleet Auxiliary) in December 2011, and the support vessel Template:Ship in June 2012.[27][28]

Future procurement plans include:

  • twelve Future Submarines, under Project SEA 1000, to replace the Collins-class (up to 4,000 tons, potentially equipped with cruise missiles and minisubs); and
  • nine Future Frigates to replace the Anzac-class frigates (possibly up to 7,000 tons and equipped with cruise missiles).[29] RAN expects to let 6 countries tender for $30 billion in 2016, and make a selection in 2018. Ships are to be built in Australia.[30]

Current operations[]

Main article: Current Australian Defence Force deployments

The RAN currently has forces deployed on four major operations:[31]

  • Operation Slipper: Australia's commitment to the International Coalition forces in Afghanistan;
  • Operation Resolute: border protection;
  • Operation Manitou: counter-piracy, counter-terrorism and maritime stability in the Middle East; and
  • Operation Accordion: support operation to provide sustainment to forces deployed on Operations Slipper and Manitou.

Personnel[]

File:Royal Australian Navy officer during RIMPAC 2014.jpg

A female RAN officer in 2014. Women serve in the RAN in combat roles and at sea.

As of June 2011, the RAN has 14,215 permanent full-time personnel, 161 gap year personnel, and 2,150 reserve personnel.[32] The permanent full-time force consisted of 3,357 commissioned officers, and 10,697 enlisted personnel.[32] In June 2010, male personnel made up 82% of the permanent full-time force, while female personnel made up 18%.[33] The RAN has the highest percentage of women in the ADF, compared to the RAAF's 17.8% and the Army's 9.7%.[33]

The following are the current senior Royal Australian Navy officers:

  • Vice Admiral Ray GriggsVice Chief of the Defence Force
  • Vice Admiral David JohnstonChief of Joint Operations
  • Vice Admiral Tim BarrettChief of Navy
  • Rear Admiral Michael NoonanDeputy Chief of Navy
  • Rear Admiral Stuart MayerCommander Australian Fleet
  • Rear Admiral Jonathan Mead – Head Navy Capability
  • Rear Admiral Colin Lawrence – Head Navy Engineering
  • Rear Admiral Bruce Kafer – Director-General Australian Navy Cadets and Reserves[34]
  • Commodore Brett Brace – Hydrographer of Australia[34]
  • Warrant Officer Gary WightWarrant Officer of the Navy

The RAN needs 2,000 recruits, including 700 apprentices,[35] to crew the next generation of warships, such as air warfare destroyers, which enter service next decade. To overcome a lack of Australian recruits, the RAN began to recruit sailors who have been laid off from other western navies.[36]

Ranks and uniforms[]

File:Safety briefing aboard HMAS Tobruk in 2010.jpg

Royal Australian Navy sailors in 2010

Template:See also The uniforms of the Royal Australian Navy are very similar in cut, colour and insignia to their British Royal Navy forerunners. However, beginning with the Second World War all RAN personnel began wearing shoulder flashes reading Australia, a practice continuing today. These are cloth arcs at shoulder height on uniforms, metallic gold on officers' shoulder boards, and embroidered on shoulder slip-ons.

Commissioned officers[]

Commissioned officers of the Australian Navy have pay grades ranging from S-1 to O-11. The only O-11 position in the navy is honorary and has only ever been held by royalty, currently being held by HRH The Duke of Edinburgh. The highest position occupied in the current Royal Australian Navy structure is O-9, a vice admiral who serves as the Chief of the Navy. O-8 (rear admiral) to O-11 (admiral of the fleet) are referred to as flag officers, O-5 (commander) and above are referred to as senior officers, while S-1 (midshipman) to O-4 (lieutenant commander) are referred to as junior officers. All officers of the Navy receive a commission from Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. The Commissioning Scroll issued in recognition of the commission is signed by the Governor General of Australia as Commander-in-Chief and the serving Minister for Defence.Template:Citation needed

Naval officers are trained at the Royal Australian Naval College (HMAS Creswell) in Jervis Bay, New South Wales and the Australian Defence Force Academy in Canberra.[37] Template:Clear

Commissioned officer rank structure of the Royal Australian Navy
Admiral of the Fleet Admiral Vice Admiral Rear Admiral Commodore Captain
O-11 O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6
60px 60px 60px 60px 60px 60px 60px 60px 60px 60px 60px
AF ADML VADM RADM CDRE CAPT
Commander Lieutenant Commander Lieutenant Sub Lieutenant Acting Sub Lieutenant Midshipman
O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1 S-1
60px 60px 60px 60px 60px 80px
CMDR LCDR LEUT SBLT ASLT MIDN

Chaplain[]

Chaplains in the Royal Australian Navy are Commissioned Officers who complete the same training as other Officers in the RAN at the Royal Australian Naval College, HMAS Creswell. RAN regulations group RAN Chaplains with Commanders for purposes of protocol such as marks of respect (saluting), however RAN Chaplains have no other rank other than "Chaplain" and their rank emblem is identifiable by a Maltese cross with gold anchor. Senior Chaplains are grouped with Captains and Principal Chaplains are grouped with Commodores, but their Chaplain rank slide remains the same. Principal Chaplains however have gold braid on the peak of their white service cap.Template:Citation needed

File:Royal Australian Navy Chaplain rank slide.png

depiction of RAN Chaplains shoulder rank slide

Other ranks[]

Other ranks
Warrant Officer of the Navy Warrant Officer Chief Petty Officer Petty Officer Leading Seaman Able Seaman Seaman
E-9 E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4 E-3 E-2
70px 70px 70px (No rank) 70px 70px (No rank) 70px 70px
WO-N WO CPO PO LS AB SMN
File:CIS Department Halifax.jpg

Royal Australian Navy sailors from HMAS Sydney during Operation Northern Trident 2009

Royal Australian Navy Other Ranks wear "right arm rates" insignia, called "Category Insignia" to indicate speciality training qualifications.[38]Template:Better source The use pattern mirrors that of the Royal Navy, and has since formation.Template:Citation needed Stars or a Crown are added to these to indicate higher qualifications.Template:Citation needed

Special insignia[]

The Warrant Officer of the Navy (WO-N) is an appointment held by the most senior sailor in the RAN, and holds the rank of warrant officer (WO). However, the WO-N does not wear the WO rank insignia; instead, they wear the special insignia of the appointment.[39] The WO-N appointment has similar equivalent appointments in the other services, each holding the rank of warrant officer, each being the most senior sailor/soldier/airman in that service, and each wearing their own special insignia rather than their rank insignia. The Australian Army equivalent is the Regimental Sergeant Major of the Army (RSM-A)[40] and the Royal Australian Air Force equivalent is the Warrant Officer of the Air Force (WOFF-AF).[41]

See also[]

Template:Portal

  • Australian Navy Cadets
  • Australian White Ensign
  • Battle and theatre honours of the Royal Australian Navy
  • Royal Australian Navy School of Underwater Medicine

References[]

Notes[]

  1. Dennis et al 1995, p. 516.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Whitley 2000, p. 17.
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. Dennis et al 1995, p. 517.
  5. Gillett & Graham 1977, p. 193.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Gillett & Graham 1977, p. 61.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 Dennis et al 1995 p. 518.
  8. Gillett & Graham 1977, pp. 69–76.
  9. Gillett & Graham 1977, p. 93.
  10. Gillett & Graham 1977, p. 94.
  11. Dennis et al 1995, pp. 519–520.
  12. Template:Cite web
  13. C L Cumberlege
  14. Template:Cite web
  15. Template:Cite book
  16. Template:Cite web
  17. Frame 2004, p. 96.
  18. Template:Cite web
  19. Template:Cite web
  20. Template:Cite web
  21. Template:Cite web
  22. Template:Cite web
  23. Template:Cite web
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. Template:Cite book
  26. Template:Cite web
  27. Template:Cite news
  28. Template:Cite press release
  29. Template:Cite news
  30. Template:Cite web
  31. Template:Cite web
  32. 32.0 32.1 Template:Cite book
  33. 33.0 33.1 Template:Cite web
  34. 34.0 34.1 Template:Cite web
  35. Template:Cite book
  36. Template:Cite news
  37. Template:Cite web
  38. Template:Cite web
  39. Template:Cite web
  40. Template:Cite web
  41. Template:Cite web

Bibliography[]

  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book
  • Template:Cite book

External links[]

Template:Commons category

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