The Singapore LGBT encyclopaedia Wiki

This wiki's URL has been migrated to the primary fandom.com domain.Read more here

READ MORE

The Singapore LGBT encyclopaedia Wiki
Advertisement

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO);[1] Template:Lang-fr) is a specialised agency of the United Nations (UN) aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, the sciences, and culture.[2][3] It has 193 member states and 11 associate members,[4] as well as partners in the nongovernmental, intergovernmental, and private sector.[5] Headquartered in Paris, France, UNESCO has 53 regional field offices[6] and 199 national commissions[7] that facilitate its global mandate.

UNESCO was founded in 1945 as the successor to the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.[8] Its constitution establishes the agency's goals, governing structure, and operating framework.[9] UNESCO's founding mission, which was shaped by the Second World War, is to advance peace, sustainable development and human rights by facilitating collaboration and dialogue among nations.[9] It pursues this objective through five major program areas: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. UNESCO sponsors projects that improve literacy, provide technical training and education, advance science, protect independent media and press freedom, preserve regional and cultural history, and promote cultural diversity.

As a focal point for world culture and science, UNESCO's activities have broadened over the years to include assisting in the translating and disseminating of world literature, establishing international cooperation agreements to secure World Heritage Sites of cultural and natural importance, defending human rights, bridging the worldwide digital divide, and creating inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[10] UNESCO has launched several initiatives and global movements, such as Education For All, to further advance its core objectives.

UNESCO is governed by the General Conference, composed of member states and associate members, which meets biannually to set the agency's programmes and the budget. It also elects members of the Executive Board, which manages UNESCO's work, and appoints every four years the Director-General, who serves as UNESCO's chief administrator. UNESCO is a member of the United Nations Development Group,[11] a coalition of UN agencies and organisations aimed at fulfilling the Sustainable Development Goals. Template:TOC limit

History[]

Origins[]

UNESCO and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility.[12][13] This new body, the International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) was created in 1922[14] and counted such figures as Henri Bergson, Albert Einstein, Marie Curie, Robert A. Millikan, and Gonzague de Reynold among its members (being thus a small commission of the League of Nations essentially centered on Western Europe[15]). The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC. However, the onset of World War II largely interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations.[16] As for private initiatives, the International Bureau of Education (IBE) began to work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development since December 1925 Template:Sfn and joined UNESCO in 1969, after having established a joint commission in 1952.

Creation[]

File:Flag of UNESCO.svg

Flag of UNESCO

After the signing of the Atlantic Charter and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education (CAME) began meetings in London which continued from 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. The idea of UNESCO was largely developed by Rab Butler, the Minister of Education for the United Kingdom, who had a great deal of influence in its development.[17] At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.[18] The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.Template:Sfn

The first General Conference took place from 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley to Director-General.[19] The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.[20] This change in governance distinguished UNESCO from its predecessor, the ICIC, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR[21][22].

Development[]

Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950[23] and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.[24] In 1956, the Republic of South Africa withdrew from UNESCO saying that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems".[25] South Africa rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela[26][27].

UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.[28] This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan in 1949.[29] In 1948, UNESCO recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.[30] In 1990, the World Conference on Education for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.[31] Ten years later, the 2000 World Education Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.[32]

UNESCO's early activities in culture included the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.[33] The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after the construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro (Pakistan), Fes (Morocco), Kathmandu (Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis (Greece).[34] The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.[35] The World Heritage Committee was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1978.[36] Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage[37]) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions[38]).

An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO in Paris in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research, which was responsible for establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)[39] later on, in 1954.

Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO project in the field of natural sciences.[40] In 1968, UNESCO organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem that continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme.[41]

In the field of communication, the "free flow of ideas by word and image" has been in UNESCO's constitution from its beginnings, following the experience of the Second World War when control of information was a factor in indoctrinating populations for aggression.[42] In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.[43] In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,[44] which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the chair of the commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).[45] The same year, UNESCO created the International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC), a multilateral forum designed to promote media development in developing countries.[46][47] In 1991, UNESCO's General Conference endorsed the Windhoek Declaration on media independence and pluralism, which led the UN General Assembly to declare the date of its adoption, 3 May, as World Press Freedom Day.[48] Since 1997, UNESCO has awarded the UNESCO / Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize every 3 May. In the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis), UNESCO introduced the Information for All Programme.[49]

21st Century[]

UNESCO admitted Palestine as a member in 2011.[50][51] Laws passed in the United States after Palestine applied for UNESCO and WHO membership in April 1989[52][53] mean that the US cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member.[54][55] As a result, the US withdrew its funding, which had accounted for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.[56] Israel also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO by freezing Israeli payments to UNESCO and imposing sanctions on the Palestinian Authority,[57] stating that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".[58] Two years after they stopped paying their dues to UNESCO, the US and Israel lost UNESCO voting rights in 2013 without losing the right to be elected; thus, the US was elected as a member of the Executive Board for the period 2016–19.[59] In 2019, Israel left UNESCO after 69 years of membership, with Israel's ambassador to the UN Danny Danon writing: "UNESCO is the body that continually rewrites history, including by erasing the Jewish connection to Jerusalem... it is corrupted and manipulated by Israel's enemies... we are not going to be a member of an organisation that deliberately acts against us".Template:Citation needed

Activities[]

File:UNESCO Brasília Office.jpg

UNESCO offices in Brasília

UNESCO implements its activities through the five program areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

  • Education: UNESCO supports research in comparative education; and provide expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the
    • UNESCO Chairs, an international network of 644 UNESCO Chairs, involving over 770 institutions in 126 countries
    • Environmental Conservation Organisation
    • Convention against Discrimination in Education adopted in 1960
    • Organization of the International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA) in an interval of 12 years
    • Publication of the Education for All Global Monitoring Report
    • Publication of the Four Pillars of Learning seminal document
    • UNESCO ASPNet, an international network of 8,000 schools in 170 countries

UNESCO does not accredit institutions of higher learning.[60]

  • UNESCO also issues public statements to educate the public:
    • Seville Statement on Violence: A statement adopted by UNESCO in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence.
  • Designating projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:
    • Global Geoparks Network
    • Biosphere reserves, through the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), since 1971
    • City of Literature; in 2007, the first city to be given this title was Edinburgh, the site of Scotland's first circulating library.[61] In 2008, Iowa City, Iowa became the City of Literature.
    • Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects
    • Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
    • Memory of the World International Register, since 1997
    • Water resources management, through the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), since 1965
    • World Heritage Sites
    • World Digital Library
  • Encouraging the "free flow of ideas by images and words" by:
    • Promoting freedom of expression, including freedom of the press and freedom of information legislation, through the Division of Freedom of Expression and Media Development,[62] including the International Programme for the Development of Communication[63]
    • Promoting the safety of journalists and combatting impunity for those who attack them,[64] through coordination of the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity[65]
    • Promoting universal access to and preservation of information and open solutions for sustainable development through the Knowledge Societies Division,[66] including the Memory of the World Programme[67] and Information for All Programme[68]
    • Promoting pluralism, gender equality and cultural diversity in the media
    • Promoting Internet Universality and its principles, that the Internet should be (I) human Rights-based, (ii) Open, (iii) Accessible to all, and (iv) nurtured by Multi-stakeholder participation (summarized as the acronym R.O.A.M.)[69]
    • Generating knowledge through publications such as World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development,[70] the UNESCO Series on Internet Freedom,[71] and the Media Development Indicators,[72] as well as other indicator-based studies.
  • Promoting events, such as:
    • International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World: 2001–2010, proclaimed by the UN in 1998
    • World Press Freedom Day, 3 May each year, to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press as a basic human right and as crucial components of any healthy, democratic and free society.
    • Criança Esperança in Brazil, in partnership with Rede Globo, to raise funds for community-based projects that foster social integration and violence prevention.
    • International Literacy Day
    • International Year for the Culture of Peace
    • Health Education for Behavior Change program in partnership with the Ministry of Education of Kenya which was financially supported by the Government of Azerbaijan to promote health education among 10-19-year-old young people who live in informal camp in Kibera, Nairobi. The project was carried out between September 2014 - December 2016.[73]
  • Founding and funding projects, such as:
    • Migration Museums Initiative: Promoting the establishment of museums for cultural dialogue with migrant populations.[74]
    • UNESCO-CEPES, the European Centre for Higher Education: established in 1972 in Bucharest, Romania, as a de-centralized office to promote international co-operation in higher education in Europe as well as Canada, USA and Israel. Higher Education in Europe is its official journal.
    • Free Software Directory: since 1998 UNESCO and the Free Software Foundation have jointly funded this project cataloguing free software.
    • FRESH Focussing Resources on Effective School Health.[75]
    • OANA, Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies
    • International Council of Science
    • UNESCO Goodwill Ambassadors
    • ASOMPS, Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices, a series of scientific conferences held in Asia
    • Botany 2000, a programme supporting taxonomy, and biological and cultural diversity of medicinal and ornamental plants, and their protection against environmental pollution
    • The UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, translating works of world literature both to and from multiple languages, from 1948 to 2005
    • GoUNESCO, an umbrella of initiatives to make heritage fun supported by UNESCO, New Delhi Office[76]

The UNESCO transparency portal has been designed to enable public access to information regarding Organization's activities, such as its aggregate budget for a biennium, as well as links to relevant programmatic and financial documents. These two distinct sets of information are published on the IATI registry, respectively based on the IATI Activity Standard and the IATI Organization Standard.

There have been proposals to establish two new UNESCO lists. The first proposed list will focus on movable cultural heritage such as artifacts, paintings, and biofacts. The list may include cultural objects, such as the Jōmon Venus of Japan, the Mona Lisa of France, the Gebel el-Arak Knife of Egypt, The Ninth Wave of Russia, the Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük of Turkey, the David (Michelangelo) of Italy, the Mathura Herakles of India, the Manunggul Jar of the Philippines, the Crown of Baekje of South Korea, The Hay Wain of the United Kingdom and the Benin Bronzes of Nigeria. The second proposed list will focus on the world's living species, such as the komodo dragon of Indonesia, the panda of China, the bald eagle of North American countries, the aye-aye of Madagascar, the Asiatic lion of India, the kakapo of New Zealand, and the mountain tapir of Colombia, Ecuador and Peru.[77][78]

Media[]

UNESCO and its specialized institutions issue a number of magazines.

The UNESCO Courier magazine states its mission to "promote UNESCO's ideals, maintain a platform for the dialogue between cultures and provide a forum for international debate". Since March 2006 it is available online, with limited printed issues. Its articles express the opinions of the authors which are not necessarily the opinions of UNESCO. There was a hiatus in publishing between 2012 and 2017.[79]

In 1950, UNESCO initiated the quarterly review Impact of Science on Society (also known as Impact) to discuss the influence of science on society. The journal ceased publication in 1992.[80] UNESCO also published Museum International Quarterly from the year 1948.

Official UNESCO NGOs[]

UNESCO has official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).[81] Most of these are what UNESCO calls "operational"; a select few are "formal".[82] The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs[83] with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO are:

Abbr Organization
IB International Baccalaureate
CCIVS Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service
CIPSH International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies (Conseil International de Philosophie et des Sciences Humaines; publishes Diogenes)
EI Education International
IAU International Association of Universities
IFTC International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication
ICOM International Council of Museums
ICSSPE International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education
ICA International Council on Archives
ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites
IFJ International Federation of Journalists
IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
IFPA International Federation of Poetry Associations
IMC International Music Council
IPA International Police Association
INSULA International Scientific Council for Island Development
ISC International Science Council (formerly ICSU and ISSC)
ITI International Theatre Institute
IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
IUTAO International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations
UIA Union of International Associations
WAN World Association of Newspapers
WFEO World Federation of Engineering Organizations
WFUCA World Federation of UNESCO Clubs, Centres and Associations
File:Unesco-IHE.JPG

UNESCO Institute for Water Education in Delft

Institutes and centres[]

The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.

Abbr Name Location
IBE International Bureau of Education Geneva[84]
UIL UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning Hamburg[85]
IIEP UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning Paris (headquarters) and Buenos Aires and Dakar (regional offices)[86]
IITE UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education Moscow[87]
IICBA UNESCO International Institute for Capacity Building in Africa Addis Ababa[88]
IESALC UNESCO International Institute for Higher Education in Latin America and the Caribbean Caracas[89]
MGIEP Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Education for Peace and Sustainable Development New Delhi[90]
UNESCO-UNEVOC UNESCO-UNEVOC International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education and Training Bonn[91]
UNESCO-IHE UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education Delft[92]
ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics Trieste[93]
UIS UNESCO Institute for Statistics Montreal[94]

Prizes[]

UNESCO awards 22 prizes[95] in education, science, culture and peace:

  • Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize
  • L'Oréal-UNESCO Awards for Women in Science
  • UNESCO/King Sejong Literacy Prize
  • UNESCO/Confucius Prize for Literacy
  • UNESCO/Emir Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah Prize to promote Quality Education for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities
  • UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize for the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education
  • UNESCO/Hamdan Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding Practice and Performance in Enhancing the Effectiveness of Teachers
  • UNESCO/Kalinga Prize for the Popularization of Science
  • UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal for an outstanding contribution to the development of scientific knowledge that has a beneficial impact on human health
  • UNESCO/Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation
  • Great Man-Made River International Water Prize for Water Resources in Arid Zones presented by UNESCO (title to be reconsidered)
  • Michel Batisse Award for Biosphere Reserve Management
  • UNESCO/Bilbao Prize for the Promotion of a Culture of Human Rights
  • UNESCO Prize for Peace Education
  • UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence
  • UNESCO/International José Martí Prize
  • UNESCO/Avicenna Prize for Ethics in Science
  • UNESCO/Juan Bosch Prize for the Promotion of Social Science Research in Latin America and the Caribbean
  • Sharjah Prize for Arab Culture
  • Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes (UNESCO-Greece)
  • IPDC-UNESCO Prize for Rural Communication
  • UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize
  • UNESCO/Jikji Memory of the World Prize
  • UNESCO-Equatorial Guinea International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences
  • Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology

Inactive prizes[]

  • International Simón Bolívar Prize (inactive since 2004)
  • UNESCO Prize for Human Rights Education
  • UNESCO/Obiang Nguema Mbasogo International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences (inactive since 2010)
  • UNESCO Prize for the Promotion of the Arts

International Days observed at UNESCO[]

International Days observed at UNESCO is provided in the table given below[96]

Date Name
14 January World Logic Day
27 January International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust
13 February World Radio Day
21 February International Mother Language Day
8 March International Women's Day
20 March International Francophonie Day
21 March International Day of Nowruz
21 March World Poetry Day
21 March International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
22 March World Day for Water
23 April World Book and Copyright Day
30 April International Jazz Day
3 May World Press Freedom Day
21 May World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development
22 May International Day for Biological Diversity
25 May Africa Day / Africa Week
5 June World Environment Day
8 June World Oceans Day
17 June World Day to Combat Desertification and Drought
9 August International Day of the World's Indigenous People
12 August International Youth Day
23 August International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition
8 September International Literacy Day
15 September International Day of Democracy
21 September International Day of Peace
28 September International Day for the Universal Access to Information
2 October International Day of Non-Violence
5 October World Teachers' Day
2nd Wednesday in October International Day for Disaster Reduction
17 October International Day for the Eradication of Poverty
20 October World Statistics Day
27 October World Day for Audiovisual Heritage
2 November International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists[97]
10 November World Science Day for Peace and Development
3rd Thursday in November World Philosophy Day
16 November International Day for Tolerance
19 November International Men's Day
25 November International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
29 November International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
1 December World AIDS Day
10 December Human Rights Day
18 December International Migrants Day

Member states[]

Main article: Member states of UNESCO

As of January 2019, UNESCO has 193 member states and 11 associate members.[98] Some members are not independent states and some members have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories.[99] UNESCO state parties are the United Nations member states (except Liechtenstein, United States[100] and Israel[101]), as well as Cook Islands, Niue and Palestine.[102][103] The United States and Israel left UNESCO on 31 December 2018.[104]

Governing bodies[]

Director-General[]

There has been no elected UNESCO Director-General from Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central and North Asia, Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, South Africa, Australia-Oceania, and South America since inception.

The Directors-General of UNESCO came from West Europe (5), Central America (1), North America (2), West Africa (1), East Asia (1), and East Europe (1). Out of the 11 Directors-General since inception, women have held the position only twice. Qatar, the Philippines, and Iran are proposing for a Director-General bid by 2021 or 2025. There have never been a Middle Eastern or Southeast Asian UNESCO Director-General since inception. The ASEAN bloc and some Pacific and Latin American nations support the possible bid of the Philippines, which is culturally Asian, Oceanic, and Latin. Qatar and Iran, on the other hand, have fragmented support in the Middle East. Egypt, Israel, and Madagascar are also vying for the position but have yet to express a direct or indirect proposal. Both Qatar and Egypt lost in the 2017 bid against France.

The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:[105]

Name Country Term
Audrey Azoulay Template:Flagcountry 2017–present
Irina Bokova Template:Flagcountry 2009–2017
Koïchiro Matsuura Template:Flagcountry 1999–2009
Federico Mayor Zaragoza Template:Flagcountry 1987–99
Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow Template:Flagcountry 1974–87
René Maheu Template:Flagcountry 1961–74; acting 1961
Vittorino Veronese Template:Flagcountry 1958–61
Luther Evans Template:Flagcountry 1953–58
John Wilkinson Taylor Template:Flagcountry acting 1952–53
Jaime Torres Bodet Template:Flagcountry 1948–52
Julian Huxley Template:Flagcountry 1946–48

General Conference[]

This is the list of the sessions of the UNESCO General Conference held since 1946:[106]

Session Location Year Chaired by from
40th Paris 2019

Altay Cengizer[107]

Template:Flagcountry
39th Paris 2017 Zohour Alaoui[108] Template:Flagcountry
38th Paris 2015 Stanley Mutumba Simataa[109] Template:Flagcountry
37th[110] Paris 2013 Hao Ping Template:Flagcountry
36th Paris 2011 Katalin Bogyay Template:Flagcountry
35th Paris 2009 Davidson Hepburn Template:Flagcountry
34th Paris 2007 George N. Anastassopoulos Template:Flagcountry
33rd Paris 2005 Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan Template:Flagcountry
32nd Paris 2003 Michael Omolewa Template:Flagcountry
31st Paris 2001 Ahmad Jalali Template:Flagcountry
30th Paris 1999 Jaroslava Moserová Template:Flagcountry
29th Paris 1997 Eduardo Portella Template:Flagcountry
28th Paris 1995 Torben Krogh Template:Flagcountry
27th Paris 1993 Ahmed Saleh Sayyad Template:Flagcountry
26th Paris 1991 Bethwell Allan Ogot Template:Flagcountry
25th Paris 1989 Anwar Ibrahim Template:Flagcountry
24th Paris 1987 Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez Template:Flagcountry
23rd Sofia 1985 Nikolai Todorov Template:Flagcountry
22nd Paris 1983 Saïd Tell Template:Flagcountry
4th extraordinary Paris 1982
21st Belgrade 1980 Ivo Margan Template:Flagcountry
20th Paris 1978 Napoléon LeBlanc Template:Flagcountry
19th Nairobi 1976 Taaita Toweett Template:Flagcountry
18th Paris 1974 Magda Jóború Template:Flagcountry
3rd extraordinary Paris 1973
17th Paris 1972 Toru Haguiwara Template:Flagcountry
16th Paris 1970 Atilio Dell'Oro Maini Template:Flagcountry
15th Paris 1968 William Eteki Mboumoua Template:Flagcountry
14th Paris 1966 Bedrettin Tuncel Template:Flagcountry
13th Paris 1964 Norair Sisakian Template:Flagcountry
12th Paris 1962 Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro Template:Flagcountry
11th Paris 1960 Akale-Work Abte-Wold Template:Flagcountry
10th Paris 1958 Jean Berthoin Template:Flagcountry
9th New Delhi 1956 Abul Kalam Azad Template:Flagcountry
8th Montevideo 1954 Justino Zavala Muñiz Template:Flagcountry
2nd extraordinary Paris 1953
7th Paris 1952 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan Template:Flagcountry
6th Paris 1951 Howland H. Sargeant Template:Flagcountry
5th Florence 1950 Stefano Jacini Template:Flagcountry
4th Paris 1949 Edward Ronald Walker Template:Flagcountry
1st extraordinary Paris 1948
3rd Beirut 1948 Hamid Bey Frangie Template:Flagcountry
2nd Mexico City 1947 Manuel Gual Vidal Template:Flagcountry
1st Paris 1946 Léon Blum Template:Flagcountry

Executive Board[]

Term Group I
(9 seats)
Group II
(7 seats)
Group III
(10 seats)
Group IV
(12 seats)
Group V(a)
(13 seats)
Group V(b)
(7 seats)
2019-2023[111] Template:Flagcountry Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flag

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flag

Template:Flagcountry

2017–19[112]

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

2014–17[113]

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

2012–15

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry
Template:Flagcountry

Offices and headquarters[]

File:April 2010, UNESCO Headquarters in Paris - The Garden of Peace (or Japanese Garden) in Spring.jpg

The Garden of Peace, UNESCO headquarters, Paris. Donated by the Government of Japan, this garden was designed by American-Japanese sculptor artist Isamu Noguchi in 1958 and installed by Japanese gardener Toemon Sano.

UNESCO headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy in Paris, France.

UNESCO's field offices across the globe are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaus and liaison offices.

Field offices by region[]

The following list of all UNESCO Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO which are served by each office.[114]

Africa[]

  • Abidjan – National Office to Côte d'Ivoire
  • Abuja – National Office to Nigeria
  • Accra – Cluster Office for Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo
  • Addis Ababa – Liaison Office with the African Union and with the Economic Commission for Africa
  • Bamako – Cluster Office for Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali and Niger
  • Brazzaville – National Office to the Republic of the Congo
  • Bujumbura – National Office to Burundi
  • Dakar – Regional Bureau for Education in Africa and Cluster Office for Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal
  • Dar es Salaam – Cluster Office for Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Tanzania
  • Harare – Cluster Office for Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe
  • Juba – National Office to South Sudan
  • Kinshasa – National Office to the Democratic Republic of the Congo
  • Libreville – Cluster Office for the Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon and Sao Tome and Principe
  • Maputo – National Office to Mozambique
  • Nairobi – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Africa and Cluster Office for Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda
  • Windhoek – National Office to Namibia
  • Yaoundé – Cluster Office to Cameroon, Central African Republic and Chad

Arab States[]

  • Amman – National Office to Jordan
  • Beirut – Regional Bureau for Education in the Arab States and Cluster Office to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine
  • Cairo – Regional Bureau for Sciences in the Arab States and Cluster Office for Egypt, Libya and Sudan
  • Doha – Cluster Office to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen
  • Iraq – National Office for Iraq (currently located in Amman, Jordan)
  • Khartoum – National Office to Sudan
  • Manama - Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage
  • Rabat – Cluster Office to Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia
  • Ramallah – National Office to the Palestinian Territories

Asia and Pacific[]

Template:See also

  • Apia – Cluster Office to Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu and Tokelau (Associate Member)
  • Bangkok – Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to Thailand, Burma, Laos, Singapore and Vietnam
  • Beijing – Cluster Office to North Korea, Japan, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China and South Korea
  • Dhaka – National Office to Bangladesh
  • Hanoi – National Office to Vietnam
  • Islamabad – National Office to Pakistan
  • Jakarta – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and East Timor
  • Manila - National Office to the Philippines
  • Kabul – National Office to Afghanistan
  • Kathmandu – National Office to Nepal
  • New Delhi – Cluster Office to Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives and Sri Lanka
  • Phnom Penh – National Office to Cambodia
  • Tashkent – National Office to Uzbekistan
  • Tehran – Cluster Office to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan and Turkmenistan

Europe and North America[]

  • Almaty – Cluster Office to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan
  • Brussels – Liaison Office to the European Union and its subsidiary bodies in Brussels
  • Geneva – Liaison Office to the United Nations in Geneva
  • New York City – Liaison Office to the United Nations in New York
  • Venice – Regional Bureau for Sciences and Culture in Europe

Latin America and the Caribbean[]

File:Carondolete en el cambio de guardia.jpg

Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with changing of the guards. The Historic Center of Quito, Ecuador, is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas.[115] This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO on 18 September 1978.

  • Brasilia – National Office to Brazil[116]
  • Guatemala City – National Office to Guatemala
  • Havana – Regional Bureau for Culture in Latin America and the Caribbean and Cluster Office to Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti and Aruba
  • Kingston – Cluster Office to Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname and Trinidad and Tobago as well as the associate member states of British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao and Sint Maarten
  • Lima – National Office to Peru
  • Mexico City – National Office to Mexico
  • Montevideo – Regional Bureau for Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean and Cluster Office to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay
  • Port-au-Prince – National Office to Haiti
  • Quito – Cluster Office to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela[117]
  • San José – Cluster Office to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua and Panama
  • Santiago de Chile – Regional Bureau for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean and National Office to Chile

Partner Organisations[]

  • International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC)
  • Blue Shield International (BSI)
  • International Council of Museums (ICOM)
  • International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
  • International Institute of Humanitarian Law (IIHL)

Controversies[]

New World Information and Communication Order[]

UNESCO has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO was perceived as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, in contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[118] In 1984, the United States withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom in 1985.[119] Singapore withdrew also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees.[120] Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore on 8 October 2007.[121]

Israel[]

Israel was admitted to UNESCO in 1949, one year after its creation. Israel has maintained its membership since 1949. In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron and Rachel's Tomb, Bethlehem as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the Obama administration and protests from Palestinians.[122] In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories" and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law.[123] UNESCO described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites.[124] Israel in turn accused UNESCO of "detach[ing] the Nation of Israel from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated.[125] The Rabbi of the Western Wall said that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site.[126] Israel partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation". Zevulun Orlev, chairman of the Knesset Education and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.[127][128]

On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censuredTemplate:Clarify Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel stated that Jordan had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be dismantled for safety reasons; Jordan disputed the agreement, saying that it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.[129]

In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled "The People, The Book, The Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel". The event was scheduled to run from 21 January through 30 January in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO argued that its display would "harm the peace process".[130] The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act", and characterized Bokova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history". UNESCO amended the decision to cancel the exhibit within the year, and it quickly achieved popularity and was viewed as a great success.[131]

On January 1, 2019, Israel formally left UNESCO in pursuance of the US withdrawal over the perceived continuous anti-Israel bias.

Occupied Palestine Resolution[]

Main article: Occupied Palestine Resolution

On 13 October 2016, UNESCO passed a resolution on East Jerusalem that condemned Israel for "aggressions" by Israeli police and soldiers and "illegal measures" against the freedom of worship and Muslims' access to their holy sites, while also recognizing Israel as the occupying power. Palestinian leaders welcomed the decision.[132] While the text acknowledged the "importance of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls for the three monotheistic religions", it referred to the sacred hilltop compound in Jerusalem's Old City only by its Muslim name "Al-Haram al-Sharif", Arabic for Noble Sanctuary. In response, Israel denounced the UNESCO resolution for its omission of the words "Temple Mount" or "Har HaBayit", stating that it denies Jewish ties to the key holy site.[132][133] After receiving criticism from numerous Israeli politicians and diplomats, including Benjamin Netanyahu and Ayelet Shaked, Israel froze all ties with the organization.[134][135] The resolution was condemned by Ban Ki-moon and the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, who said that Judaism, Islam and Christianity have clear historical connections to Jerusalem and "to deny, conceal or erase any of the Jewish, Christian or Muslim traditions undermines the integrity of the site.[136][137] "Al-Aqsa Mosque [or] Al-Haram al-Sharif" is also Temple Mount, whose Western Wall is the holiest place in Judaism."[138]. It was also rejected by the Czech Parliament which said the resolution reflects a "hateful anti-Israel sentiment",[139] and hundreds of Italian Jews demonstrated in Rome over Italy's abstention.[139] On 26 October, UNESCO approved a reviewed version of the resolution, which also criticized Israel for its continuous "refusal to let the body's experts access Jerusalem's holy sites to determine their conservation status".[140] Despite containing some softening of language following Israeli protests over a previous version, Israel continued to denounce the text.[141] The resolution refers to the site Jews and Christians refer to as the Temple Mount, or Har HaBayit in Hebrew, only by its Arab name — a significant semantic decision also adopted by UNESCO's executive board, triggering condemnation from Israel and its allies. U.S. Ambassador Crystal Nix Hines stated: "This item should have been defeated. These politicized and one-sided resolutions are damaging the credibility of UNESCO."[142]

In October 2017, the United States and Israel announced they would withdraw from the organization, citing in-part anti-Israel bias.[143][144]

Palestine[]

Palestinian youth magazine controversy[]

In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.[145]

Islamic University of Gaza controversy[]

In 2012, UNESCO decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences,[146] fueling controversy and criticism. Israel bombed the school in 2008 stating that they develop and store weapons there, which Israel restated in criticizing UNESCO's move.[147][148]

The head, Kamalain Shaath, defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development".[149][150][151] Israeli ambassador to UNESCO Nimrod Barkan planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO chose to cooperate with.[152] The Jewish organization B'nai B'rith criticized the move as well.[153]

Che Guevara[]

In 2013, UNESCO announced that the collection "The Life and Works of Ernesto Che Guevara" became part of the Memory of the World Register. US Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen condemned this decision, saying that the organization acts against its own ideals:[154]

Template:Quote

UN Watch also condemned this selection by UNESCO.[155]

Listing Nanjing Massacre documents[]

In 2015, Japan threatened to halt funding for UNESCO over the organization's decision to include documents relating to the 1937 Nanjing massacre in the latest listing for its "Memory of the World" program.[156] In October 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida confirmed that Japan's 2016 annual funding of ¥4.4 billion had been suspended although denied any direct link with the Nanjing document controversy.[157]

US withdrawals[]

The United States withdrew from UNESCO in 1984, citing the "highly politicized" nature of the organisation, its ostensible "hostility toward the basic institutions of a free society, especially a free market and a free press", as well as its "unrestrained budgetary expansion", and poor management under then Director General Amadou-Mahter M'Bow of Senegal.[158]

On 19 September 1989, former U.S. Congressman Jim Leach stated before a Congressional subcommittee:[159] Template:Quote

Leach concluded that the record showed Israel bashing, a call for a new world information order, money management, and arms control policy to be the impetus behind the withdrawal; he asserted that before departing from UNESCO, a withdrawal from the IAEA had been pushed on him.[159] On 1 October 2003, the U.S. rejoined UNESCO.[158]

On 12 October 2017, the United States notified UNESCO that it will again withdraw from the organization on 31 December 2018 and will seek to establish a permanent observer mission beginning in 2019. The Department of State cited "mounting arrears at UNESCO, the need for fundamental reform in the organization, and continuing anti-Israel bias at UNESCO".[143] Israel praised the withdrawal decision as "brave" and "moral".[158]

The United States has not paid over $600 million in dues[160] since it stopped paying its $80 million annual UNESCO dues when Palestine became a full member in 2011. Israel and the US were among the 14 votes against the membership out of 194 member countries.[161]

Turkish–Kurdish conflict[]

On May 25, 2016, the noted Turkish poet and human rights activist Zülfü Livaneli resigned as Turkey's only UNESCO goodwill ambassador. He highlighted human rights situation in Turkey and destruction of historical Sur district of Diyarbakir, the largest city in Kurdish-majority southeast Turkey, during fighting between the Turkish army and Kurdish militants as the main reasons for his resignation. Livaneli said: "To pontificate on peace while remaining silent against such violations is a contradiction of the fundamental ideals of UNESCO."[162]

Atatürk[]

In 1981, UNESCO and the UN celebrated the Atatürk Centennial.

Products and services[]

  • UNESDOC[163] – Contains over 146,000 UNESCO documents in full text published since 1945 as well as metadata from the collections of the UNESCO Library and documentation centres in field offices and institutes.

Information processing tools[]

UNESCO develops, maintains and disseminates, free of charge, two interrelated software packages for database management (CDS/ISIS [not to be confused with UK police software package ISIS]) and data mining/statistical analysis (IDAMS).[164]

  • CDS/ISIS – a generalised information storage and retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area network. The JavaISIS client/server components allow remote database management over the Internet and are available for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Furthermore, GenISIS allows the user to produce HTML Web forms for CDS/ISIS database searching. The ISIS_DLL provides an API for developing CDS/ISIS based applications.
  • OpenIDAMS – a software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. The original package was proprietary but UNESCO has initiated a project to provide it as open-source.[165]
  • IDIS – a tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS

See also[]

Template:Portal

  • Academic Mobility Network
  • League of Nations archives
  • Total Digital Access to the League of Nations Archives Project (LONTAD)
  • UNESCO Reclining Figure 1957–58, sculpture by Henry Moore
  • UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists
  • UniRef

Template:Clear

Further reading[]

References[]

  1. Template:Cite web
  2. Template:Cite web
  3. Template:Cite web
  4. Template:Cite web
  5. Template:Cite web
  6. Template:Cite web
  7. Template:Cite web
  8. Template:Cite book (English summary Template:Webarchive).
  9. 9.0 9.1 Template:Cite web
  10. Template:Cite web
  11. Template:Cite web
  12. Template:Citation
  13. Template:Citation.
  14. Template:Cite book
  15. Template:Cite journal
  16. Template:Cite book
  17. The work of U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949) Template:Webarchive. Millbank systems. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  18. Template:Cite web
  19. Template:Cite web
  20. Template:Cite web
  21. Template:Citation
  22. Template:Cite book
  23. Template:Cite web
  24. Template:Cite web
  25. UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3.
  26. Template:Cite book
  27. Template:Citation
  28. The Haiti pilot project: phase one, 1947–1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education IV. UNESCO: Paris.
  29. Template:Cite web
  30. Template:Cite web
  31. Template:Cite web
  32. Template:Cite web
  33. Template:Cite web
  34. Template:Cite book
  35. Template:Cite web
  36. Template:Cite web
  37. Template:Cite web
  38. Template:Cite web
  39. Template:Cite web
  40. Template:Cite web
  41. Template:Cite web
  42. Template:Cite web
  43. Template:Cite web
  44. Template:Cite web
  45. Template:Cite web
  46. Template:Cite web
  47. Template:Cite web
  48. Template:Cite web
  49. Template:Cite web
  50. Template:Cite web
  51. Template:Cite news
  52. Template:Cite book
  53. Request for the admission of the State of Palestine to UNESCO as a Member State, UNESCO Executive Board, 131st, 1989
  54. The laws originated in Template:USBill and Template:USBill; for further details see committee discussions at: Template:Cite book. The text of the House and Senate resolutions were subsequently put into the following laws: Template:USBill (which produced Template:USPL), Template:USBill, Template:USBill and finally Template:USBill (which produced Template:USPL). See also: Template:Cite book
  55. Template:Cite news
  56. Template:Cite news
  57. Template:Cite news
  58. Template:Cite news
  59. Template:Cite news
  60. Because diploma mills have claimed false UNESCO accreditation, UNESCO itself has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO recognition or affiliation. See Luca Lantero, Degree Mills: non-accredited and irregular higher education institutions Template:Webarchive, Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy. and UNESCO "Alert: Misuse of UNESCO Name by Bogus Institutions"
  61. Template:Cite book
  62. Template:Cite web
  63. Template:Cite web
  64. Template:Cite web
  65. Template:Cite web
  66. Template:Cite web
  67. Template:Cite web
  68. Template:Cite web
  69. Template:Cite web
  70. Template:Cite web
  71. Template:Cite web
  72. Template:Cite web
  73. Template:Cite web
  74. Template:Cite web
  75. Template:Cite web
  76. Template:Cite web
  77. Template:Cite web
  78. Template:Cite web
  79. Template:Cite web
  80. Template:Cite web
  81. Template:Cite web
  82. Template:Cite web
  83. Template:Cite web
  84. Template:Cite web
  85. Template:Cite web
  86. Template:Cite web
  87. Template:Cite web
  88. Template:Cite web
  89. Template:Cite web
  90. Template:Cite web
  91. Template:Cite web
  92. Template:Cite web
  93. Template:Cite web
  94. Template:Cite web
  95. UNESCO Executive Board Document 185 EX/38 Template:Webarchive, Paris, 10 September 2010
  96. International Days | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Template:Webarchive. UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2013.
  97. Template:Cite web
  98. Template:Cite web
  99. Template:Cite web
  100. Template:Citation
  101. Template:Citation
  102. Template:Cite web
  103. Template:Cite web
  104. Template:Cite news
  105. UNESCO official site: Directors-General Template:Webarchive
  106. UNESCO official site: Previous Sessions of the General Conference Template:Webarchive
  107. Template:Cite web
  108. Template:Cite web
  109. Template:Cite web
  110. Template:Cite web
  111. Template:Cite web
  112. Executive Board – Results of elections Template:Webarchive. UNESCO General Conference, November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  113. Table_2013-2015.pdf Template:Webarchive UNESCO Membership by Electoral Groups. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  114. Template:Cite web
  115. Template:Cite web
  116. Template:Cite web
  117. Template:Cite web
  118. Template:Cite journal
  119. Template:Citation
  120. Template:Citation
  121. Template:Citation
  122. Template:Cite news
  123. Template:Cite web
  124. Template:Cite news
  125. Template:Cite web
  126. Template:Cite web
  127. Template:Cite web
  128. Template:Cite web
  129. Template:Cite web
  130. Template:Cite news
  131. Template:Cite news
  132. 132.0 132.1 Template:Cite news
  133. Template:Cite web
  134. Template:Cite web
  135. Template:Cite web
  136. Template:Cite web
  137. Template:Cite web
  138. Template:Cite news
  139. 139.0 139.1 Template:Cite web
  140. Template:Cite news
  141. Template:Cite news
  142. Template:Cite news
  143. 143.0 143.1 Template:Cite news
  144. Template:Cite news
  145. Template:Cite news
  146. Template:Cite web
  147. The Goldstone Report: The Legacy of the Landmark Investigation of the Gaza Conflict Template:Webarchive By Adam Horowitz, Lizzy Ratner and Philip Weiss (2011). Google Books.
  148. Template:Cite press release
  149. Template:Cite news
  150. Template:Cite web
  151. Template:Cite news
  152. Template:Cite news
  153. Template:Cite news
  154. Template:Citation
  155. UNESCO honors executioner Che Guevara Template:Webarchive, UN Watch, 21 July 2013 (retrieved 11 July 2016)
  156. Template:Cite web
  157. Template:Cite news
  158. 158.0 158.1 158.2 Template:Cite web
  159. 159.0 159.1 Template:Cite web
  160. Template:Cite news
  161. Template:Cite news
  162. "Turkish writer quits UNESCO to protest damage to heritage, rights abuse Template:Webarchive". Reuters. May 26, 2016.
  163. Template:Cite web
  164. Template:Cite web
  165. Template:Cite web

External links[]

Template:Commons category Template:Meta

  • Template:Official
Advertisement